A Shift from Cellular to Humoral Responses Contributes to Innate Immune Memory in the Vector Snail Biomphalaria glabrata
|Author(s)||Pinaud Silvain1, Portela Julien1, Duval David1, Nowacki Fanny C.1, 2, Olive Marie-Aude1, Allienne Jean-Francois1, Galinier Richard1, Dheilly Nolwenn M.1, 3, Kieffer-Jaquinod Sylvie4, Mitta Guillaume1, Theron Andre1, Gourbal Benjamin1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Montpellier, IFREMER, CNRS, Univ Perpignan,IHPE UMR 5244, Via Domitia, Perpignan, France.
2 : Aberystwyth Univ, Inst Biol Environm & Rural Sci, Aberystwyth Ceredigion, Scotland.
3 : SUNY Stony Brook, Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA.
4 : INSERM CEA UJF CEA, Lab Biol Grande Echelle UMR S 1038, Plate Forme Analyses Proteom EDyP Serv, Grenoble, France.
|Source||Plos Pathogens (1553-7366) (Public Library Science), 2016-01 , Vol. 12 , N. 1 , P. e1005361 (18p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||79|
Discoveries made over the past ten years have provided evidence that invertebrate antiparasitic responses may be primed in a sustainable manner, leading to the failure of a secondary encounter with the same pathogen. This phenomenon called "immune priming" or "innate immune memory" was mainly phenomenological. The demonstration of this process remains to be obtained and the underlying mechanisms remain to be discovered and exhaustively tested with rigorous functional and molecular methods, to eliminate all alternative explanations. In order to achieve this ambitious aim, the present study focuses on the Lophotrochozoan snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, in which innate immune memory was recently reported. We provide herein the first evidence that a shift from a cellular immune response (encapsulation) to a humoral immune response (biomphalysin) occurs during the development of innate memory. The molecular characterisation of this process in Biomphalaria/Schistosoma system was undertaken to reconcile mechanisms with phenomena, opening the way to a better comprehension of innate immune memory in invertebrates. This prompted us to revisit the artificial dichotomy between innate and memory immunity in invertebrate systems.