Coherent assessments of Europe's marine fishes show regional divergence and megafauna loss
|Author(s)||Fernandes Paul G.1, Ralph Gina M.2, Nieto Ana3, Criado Mariana Garcia3, Vasilakopoulos Paraskevas4, 5, Maravelias Christos D.4, Cook Robin M.6, Pollom Riley A.7, 8, Kovacic Marcelo9, Pollard David10, Farrell Edward D.11, Florin Ann-Britt12, Polidoro Beth A.13, Lawson Julia M.7, 8, Lorance Pascal14, Uiblein Franz15, Craig Matthew16, Allen David J.3, Fowler Sarah L.17, Walls Rachel H. L.7, 8, Comeros-Raynal Mia T.2, 18, Harvey Michael S.2, Dureuil Manuel19, Biscoito Manuel20, Pollock Caroline3, Phillips Sophy R. Mccully21, Ellis Jim R.21, Papaconstantinou Constantinos22, Soldo Alen23, Keskin Cetin24, Knudsen Steen Wilhelm25, Gil De Sola Luis26, Serena Fabrizio27, Collette Bruce B.28, Nedreaas Kjell15, Stump Emilie29, Russell Barry C.30, Garcia Silvia31, Afonso Pedro32, Jung Armelle B. J.33, Alvarez Helena31, Delgado Joao34, Dulvy Nicholas K.7, 8, Carpenter Kent E.2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Univ Aberdeen, Sch Biol Sci, Aberdeen AB24 2TZ, Scotland.
2 : Old Dominion Univ, Dept Biol Sci, IUCN Marine Biodivers Unit, Norfolk, VA 23529 USA.
3 : IUCN, Global Species & Key Biodivers Areas Programme, Rue Mauverney 28, CH-1196 Gland, Switzerland.
4 : HCMR, Inst Marine Biol Resources & Inland Waters, 46-7 Km Athens Sounio Ave, Anavyssos 19013, Greece.
5 : European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Directorate Sustainable Resources D, Unit D Water & Marine Resources 02, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra, VA, Italy.
6 : Univ Strathclyde, Dept Math & Stat, 26 Richmond St, Glasgow G1 1XH, Lanark, Scotland.
7 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Biol Sci, IUCN Shark Specialist Grp, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
8 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Earth Ocean Res Grp, 8888 Univ Dr, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
9 : Nat Hist Museum Rijeka, Lorenzov Prolaz 1, HR-51000 Rijeka, Croatia.
10 : Australian Museum, Dept Ichthyol, 1 William St, Sydney, NSW 2010, Australia.
11 : Univ Coll Dublin, Sch Biol & Environm Sci, Dublin 4, Ireland.
12 : Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Resources, Skolgatan 6, S-74242 Oregrund, Sweden.
13 : Arizona State Univ, Sch Math & Nat Sci, Glendale, AZ 85306 USA.
14 : IFREMER, BP 21105, F-44311 Nantes 3, France.
15 : Inst Marine Res, Nordnesgaten 33,POB 1870, N-5817 Bergen, Norway.
16 : Natl Marine Fisheries Serv, Southwest Fisheries Sci Ctr, 8901 La Jolla Shores Dr, La Jolla, CA 92037 USA.
17 : Shark Trust, 15 Bakers Pl, Plymouth PL1 4LX, Devon, England.
18 : Amer Samoa Environm Protect Agcy, Pago Pago, AS 96799 USA.
19 : Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biol, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
20 : Museu Hist Nat Funchal, Rua Mouraria 31, P-9004546 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal.
21 : Ctr Environm Fisheries & Aquaculture Sci Cefas, Lowestoft NR33 0HT, Suffolk, England.
22 : 17 Kolokotroni Str, Penteli 15236, Greece.
23 : Univ Split, Dept Marine Studies, Livanjska 5, Split 21000, Croatia.
24 : Istanbul Univ, Fac Fisheries, Ordu St 200, TR-34134 Istanbul, Turkey.
25 : Univ Copenhagen, Nat Hist Museum Denmark, Univ Pk 15, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.
26 : Ctr Costero Malaga, Inst Espaol Oceanog, Fuengirola 29640, Spain.
27 : Italian Natl Res Council CNR IAMC, Inst Coastal Marine Environm, I-91026 Mazara Del Vallo, Italy.
28 : Natl Museum Nat Hist, Natl Marine Fisheries Serv Systemat Lab, Washington, DC 20560 USA.
29 : Univ British Columbia, Inst Oceans & Fisheries, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
30 : Museum & Art Gallery Northern Terr, Darwin, NT 0810, Australia.
31 : Oceana Europe, Gran Via 59, Madrid 28013, Spain.
32 : Univ Azores, Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Inst Marine Res, P-9901862 Horta, Portugal.
33 : BLP Brest Iroise, DRDH, 15 Rue Dumont Urville, F-29860 Plouzane, France.
34 : Secretaria Reg Ambiente & Recursos Nat, Rua Dr Pestana Jr,6-5 Andar, P-9064506 Funchal, Madeira, Portugal.
|Source||Nature Ecology & Evolution (2397-334X) (Nature Publishing Group), 2017-07 , Vol. 1 , N. 7 , P. 0170 (1-9)|
|WOS© Times Cited||32|
Europe has a long tradition of exploiting marine fishes and is promoting marine economic activity through its Blue Growth strategy. This increase in anthropogenic pressure, along with climate change, threatens the biodiversity of fishes and food security. Here, we examine the conservation status of 1,020 species of European marine fishes and identify factors that contribute to their extinction risk. Large fish species (greater than 1.5 m total length) are most at risk; half of these are threatened with extinction, predominantly sharks, rays and sturgeons. This analysis was based on the latest International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) European regional Red List of marine fishes, which was coherent with assessments of the status of fish stocks carried out independently by fisheries management agencies: no species classified by IUCN as threatened were considered sustainable by these agencies. A remarkable geographic divergence in stock status was also evident: in northern Europe, most stocks were not overfished, whereas in the Mediterranean Sea, almost all stocks were overfished. As Europe proceeds with its sustainable Blue Growth agenda, two main issues stand out as needing priority actions in relation to its marine fishes: the conservation of marine fish megafauna and the sustainability of Mediterranean fish stocks.