Epidemiological surveillance of schistosomiasis outbreak in Corsica (France): Are animal reservoir hosts implicated in local transmission?
|Author(s)||Oleaga Ana1, Rey Olivier2, Polack Bruno3, Grech-Angelini Sébastien4, Quilichini Yann5, Pérez-Sánchez Ricardo1, Boireau Pascal6, Mulero Stephen7, Brunet Aimé, Rogon Anne2, Vallée Isabelle6, Kincaid-Smith Julien2, Allienne Jean-François8, Boissier Jérôme2|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Parasitology Laboratory, Institute of Natural Resources and Agrobiology (IRNASA, CSIC). Cordel de Merinas, Salamanca, Spain
2 : IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, Perpignan France
3 : UMR BIPAR, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, ANSES, INRA, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort, France
4 : Groupement Technique Vétérinaire de Corse, Ghisonaccia, France
5 : UMR SPE 6134, CNRS-Université de Corse Campus Grimaldi Bât 018, Université de Corse, Corte, France
6 : UMR BIPAR, Anses, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, INRA, University Paris-Est, Animal Health Laboratory, Maisons-Alfort, France
7 : IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, Perpignan France
8 : IHPE, Univ. Montpellier, CNRS, Ifremer, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, Perpignan France
|Source||Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases (1935-2735) (Public Library of Science (PLoS)), 2019-06 , Vol. 13 , N. 6 , P. e0007543 (15p.)|
|WOS© Times Cited||20|
Environmental and anthropogenic changes are expected to promote emergence and spread of pathogens worldwide. Since 2013, human urogenital schistosomiasis is established in Corsica island (France). Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease affecting both humans and animals. The parasite involved in the Corsican outbreak is a hybrid form between Schistosoma haematobium, a human parasite, and Schistosoma bovis, a livestock parasite. S. bovis has been detected in Corsican livestock few decades ago raising the questions whether hybridization occurred in Corsica and if animals could behave as a reservoir for the recently established parasite lineage. The latter hypothesis has huge epidemiological outcomes since the emergence of a zoonotic lineage of schistosomes would be considerably harder to control and eradicate the disease locally and definitively needs to be verified. In this study we combined a sero-epidemiological survey on ruminants and a rodent trapping campaign to check whether schistosomes could shift on vertebrate hosts other than humans. A total of 3,519 domesticated animals (1,147 cattle; 671 goats and 1,701 sheep) from 160 farms established in 14 municipalities were sampled. From these 3,519 screened animals, 17 were found to be serologically positive but were ultimately considered as false positive after complementary analyses. Additionally, our 7-day extensive rodent trapping (i.e. 1,949 traps placed) resulted in the capture of a total of 34 rats (Rattus rattus) and 4 mice (Mus musculus). Despite the low number of rodents captured, molecular diagnostic tests showed that two of them have been found to be infected by schistosomes. Given the low abundance of rodents and the low parasitic prevalence and intensity among rodents, it is unlikely that neither rats nor ruminants play a significant role in the maintenance of schistosomiasis outbreak in Corsica. Finally, the most likely hypothesis is that local people initially infected in 2013 re-contaminated the river during subsequent summers, however we cannot definitively rule out the possibility of an animal species acting as reservoir host.