Fatty acid ester metabolites of gymnodimine in shellfish collected from China and in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to Karenia selliformis

Type Article
Date 2020-02
Language English
Author(s) Ji Ying1, 2, Che Yijia1, 2, Wright Elliott J.3, McCarron Pearse3, Hess PhilippORCID4, Li Aifeng1, 2
Affiliation(s) 1 : College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
2 : Key Laboratory of Marine Environment and Ecology, Ocean University of China, Ministry of Education, Qingdao 266100, China
3 : Biotoxin Metrology, National Research Council Canada, 1411 Oxford Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3Z1, Canada
4 : Ifremer, Phycotoxins Laboratory, Nantes, France
Source Harmful Algae (1568-9883) (Elsevier BV), 2020-02 , Vol. 92 , P. 101774 (8p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.hal.2020.101774
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) Gymnodimines (GYM), Fatty acid ester, Karenia selliformis, Toxin profiles, Antioxidant enzymes
Abstract

Marine shellfish exposed to the microalgae Karenia selliformis can accumulate gymnodimines (GYM). Shellfish samples collected from Beihai City in Guangxi Autonomous Region, and Ningde City in Fujian Province, in the South China Sea, as well as mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis fed on K. selliformis under laboratory conditions were analyzed. Gymnodimines and various fatty acid ester metabolites were detected in the clam Antigona lamellaris and pen shell Atrina pectinata, while no esters were found in the oyster Crassostrea sp. and the gastropod Batillaria zonalis despite positive detection of free GYM in both species. When present, the predominant acyl esters observed were 18:0-GYM-A and 20:1-GYM-A. Under laboratory conditions GYM-A was accumulated and metabolized to fatty acid esters in mussels exposed to K. selliformis, with 16:0-GYM-A and 20:1-GYM-A as the major variants. A novel compound with the same accurate mass as GYM-A and its 16:0 fatty acid ester were observed in the experimental mussels but was not present in the microalgal strain to which mussels were exposed. No significant differences of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and antioxidant enzymes were found between mussels fed on K. selliformis or GYM-free microalgae Isochrysis galbana. This suggests the accumulation of GYM and its metabolites does not significantly impact the physiological status of mussels. While it is currently not proven that GYM affects human health, risk assessments should consider the presence of GYM esters in naturally contaminated shellfish as part of exposure analysis.

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Ji Ying, Che Yijia, Wright Elliott J., McCarron Pearse, Hess Philipp, Li Aifeng (2020). Fatty acid ester metabolites of gymnodimine in shellfish collected from China and in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) exposed to Karenia selliformis. Harmful Algae, 92, 101774 (8p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hal.2020.101774 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00609/72153/