Reclassification of Gonyaulax verior (Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae) as Sourniaea diacantha gen. et comb. nov.
|Author(s)||Zhang Wei1, Li Zhun2, Mertens Kenneth3, Derrien Amelie3, Pospelova Vera4, 5, Carbonell-Moore M. Consuelo6, Bagheri Siamak7, Matsuoka Kazumi8, Shin Hyeon Ho9, Gu Haifeng1, 10|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, 361005, China
2 : Biological Resource Center/Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC), Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Jeongeup 56212, Korea
3 : Station de Biologie Marine, Ifremer, LER BO, Place de la Croix, BP40537, Concarneau CEDEX F-29185, France
4 : School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, OEASB A405, P. O. Box 1700 16 STN CSC, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 2Y2, Canada
5 : Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Minnesota, 116 Church Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA
6 : Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, 2082 Cordley Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331-2902, USA
7 : Inland Waters Aquaculture Research Center, Iranian Fisheries Science Institute, Agricultural Research Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Anzali 43167-13111, Iran
8 : Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1, Omiya, Asahi-ku, Osaka City 535-8585, Japan
9 : Library of Marine Samples, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Geoje 53201, Korea
10 : Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, China
|Source||Phycologia (0031-8884) (Informa UK Limited), 2020-05 , Vol. 59 , N. 3 , P. 246-260|
|Keyword(s)||Amylax diacantha, Cysts, Dinoflagellate, Gonyaulax longispina, Molecular phylogeny|
Gonyaulax verior was initially described as Amylax diacantha from Belgian coastal waters a century ago but its detailed morphology needed restudy. Here, we established nine strains of G. verior by germinating cysts or isolating cells from localities from the European Atlantic to the Caspian Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Both cyst and thecal morphology were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. SSU, LSU and/or ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from all strains. Cells of G. verior have a plate formula of Po, 4′, 2a, 6-7′′, 6C, 6S, 6′′′, 1p, 1′′′′ with an L-type ventral organisation, characterised by two either straight or curved antapical horns of variable length. Cysts of G. verior are oval, smooth and contain one or two yellow accumulation bodies. The maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses based on SSU and LSU rRNA gene sequences revealed two clades of G. verior, referred to as ribotypes A and B. Genetic distances based on ITS-5.8S rRNA gene sequences within the same ribotype were less than 0.06, but greater than 0.32 between ribotypes. G. verior is reclassified as Sourniaea diacantha gen. et comb. nov., which is attributed to Lingulodiniaceae together with Pyxidinopsis, Lingulodinium and Amylax. Our results suggest that Lingulodiniaceae can be separated from Protoceratiaceae and Gonyaulacaceae based on ventral organisation, apical complex, ventral pore and number of anterior intercalary plates. One strain of S. diacantha was examined for yessotoxin production by LC-MS/MS but did not produce toxin.