An eDNA/eRNA‐based approach to investigate the life cycle of non‐cultivable shellfish micro‐parasites: the case of Bonamia ostreae , a parasite of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis
|Author(s)||Mérou Nicolas1, Lecadet Cyrielle1, Pouvreau Stephane2, Arzul Isabelle1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie des Mollusques Marins Ifremer SG2M‐LGPMM Avenue de Mus de Loup 17390 La Tremblade France
2 : Laboratoire des Sciences de l'Environnement Marin UMR 6539, Ifremer/UBO/IRD/CNRS Ifremer 11 Presqu'île du Vivier 29840 Argenton‐en‐Landunvez France
|Source||Microbial Biotechnology (1751-7915) (Wiley), 2020-11 , Vol. 13 , N. 6 , P. 1807-1818|
Environmental DNA approaches are increasingly used to detect microorganisms in environmental compartments, including water. They show considerable advantages to study non‐cultivable microorganisms like Bonamia ostreae, a protozoan parasite inducing significant mortality in populations of flat oyster Ostrea edulis . Although B. ostreae development within the host has been well described, questions remain about its behaviour in the environment. As B. ostreae transmission is direct, seawater appears as an interesting target to develop early detection tools and improve our understanding of disease transmission mechanisms. In this context, we have developed an eDNA/eRNA approach allowing detecting and quantifying B. ostreae 18S rDNA/rRNA as well as monitoring its presence in seawater by real‐time PCR. B. ostreae DNA could be detected up to 4 days while RNA could be detected up to 30 days, suggesting a higher sensitivity of the eRNA‐based tool. Additionally, more than 90% of shed parasites were no longer detected after 2 days outside the oysters. By allowing B. ostreae detection in seawater, this approach would not only be useful to monitor the presence of the parasite in oyster production areas but also to evaluate the effect of changing environmental factors on parasite survival and transmission.