Assessing the environmental status of selected North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems

Type Article
Date 2020-12
Language English
Author(s) Kazanidis Georgios1, Orejas Covadonga2, Borja Angel3, Kenchington Ellen4, Henry Lea-Anne1, Callery Oisín5, Carreiro-Silva Marina6, Egilsdottir Hronn7, Giacomello Eva6, Grehan Anthony5, Menot LenaickORCID8, Morato Telmo6, Ragnarsson Stefán Áki7, Rueda José Luis9, Stirling David10, Stratmann Tanja11, Van Oevelen Dick11, Palialexis Andreas12, Johnson David1, 13, Roberts J Murray1, 14
Affiliation(s) 1 : Changing Oceans Research Group, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, UK
2 : Spanish Institute of Oceanography, (IEO), Oceanographic Centre of the Balearics (COB), Ecosystem Oceanography Group (GRECO), Spain
3 : AZTI, Marine Research, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Spain
4 : Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bedford Institute of Oceanography (DFO), Canada
5 : National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
6 : IMAR-Instituto do Mar, OKEANOS Research Centre, Universidade dos Açores, Horta, Portugal
7 : Marine and Freshwater Research Institute, Iceland
8 : Ifremer, REM/EEP/LEP, Centre de Bretagne, Plouzané, France
9 : Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO), Oceanographic Centre of Málaga (COMA), Fuengirola (Málaga), Spain
10 : Marine Scotland Science, Marine Laboratory, 375 Victoria Road, Aberdeen, Scotland, UK
11 : NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Department of Estuarine and Delta Systems, and Utrecht University, Yerseke, the Netherlands
12 : European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy
13 : Seascape Consultants Ltd, UK
14 : Center for Marine Science, University of North Carolina at Wilmington, Wilmington, NC, USA
Source Ecological Indicators (1470160X) (Elsevier BV), 2020-12 , Vol. 119 , P. 106624 (24p.)
DOI 10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106624
Keyword(s) Deep-sea environmental status, Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems, Indicators, Baselines, Marine Strategy Framework Directive, NEAT
Abstract

The deep sea is the largest biome on Earth but the least explored. Our knowledge of it comes from scattered sources spanning different spatial and temporal scales. Implementation of marine policies like the European Union’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) and support for Blue Growth in the deep sea are therefore hindered by lack of data. Integrated assessments of environmental status require tools to work with different and disaggregated datasets (e.g. density of deep-sea habitat-forming species, body-size distribution of commercial fishes, intensity of bottom trawling) across spatial and temporal scales. A feasibility study was conducted as part of the four-year ATLAS project to assess the effectiveness of the open-access Nested Environmental status Assessment Tool (NEAT) to assess deep-sea environmental status. We worked at nine selected study areas in the North Atlantic focusing on five MSFD descriptors (D1-Biodiversity, D3-Commercial fish and shellfish, D4-Food webs, D6-Seafloor integrity, D10-Marine litter). The objectives of the present study were to i) explore and propose indicators that could be used in the assessment of deep-sea environmental status, ii) evaluate the performance of NEAT in the deep sea, and iii) identify challenges and opportunities for the assessment of deep-sea status. Based on data availability, data quality and expert judgement, in total 24 indicators (one for D1, one for D3, seven for D4, 13 for D6, two for D10) were used in the assessment of the nine study areas, their habitats and ecosystem components. NEAT analyses revealed differences among the study areas for their environmental status ranging from “poor” to “high”. Overall, the NEAT results were in moderate to complete agreement with expert judgement, previous assessments, scientific literature on human-pressure gradients and expected management outcomes. We suggest that the assessment of deep-sea environmental status should take place at habitat and ecosystem level (rather than at species level) and at relatively large spatial scales, in comparison to shallow-water areas. Limited knowledge across space (e.g. distribution of habitat-forming species) and the scarcity of long-term data sets limit our knowledge about natural variability and human impacts in the deep sea preventing a more systematic assessment of habitat and ecosystem components in the deep sea. However, stronger cross-sectoral collaborations, the use of novel technologies and open data-sharing platforms will be critical for establishing environmental baseline indicator values in the deep sea that will contribute to the science base supporting the implementation of marine policies and stimulating Blue Growth.

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Kazanidis Georgios, Orejas Covadonga, Borja Angel, Kenchington Ellen, Henry Lea-Anne, Callery Oisín, Carreiro-Silva Marina, Egilsdottir Hronn, Giacomello Eva, Grehan Anthony, Menot Lenaick, Morato Telmo, Ragnarsson Stefán Áki, Rueda José Luis, Stirling David, Stratmann Tanja, Van Oevelen Dick, Palialexis Andreas, Johnson David, Roberts J Murray (2020). Assessing the environmental status of selected North Atlantic deep-sea ecosystems. Ecological Indicators, 119, 106624 (24p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2020.106624 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00651/76276/