World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m), 1955-2010

Type Article
Date 2012-05
Language English
Author(s) Levitus S.1, Antonov Ji2, Boyer Tp1, Baranova Ok1, Garcia He1, Locamini Ra1, Mishonov Av1, Reagan Jr1, Seidiv D1, Yarosh Es1, Zweng Mm1
Affiliation(s) 1 : National Oceanographic Data Center, NOAA, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
2 : UCAR Project Scientist, National Oceanographic Data Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA
Source Geophysical Research Letters (0094-8276) (Amer Geophysical Union), 2012-05 , Vol. 39 , N. 10 , P. L10603 (5p.)
DOI 10.1029/2012GL051106
WOS© Times Cited 600
Keyword(s) climate variability, ocean heat content
Abstract

We provide updated estimates of the change of ocean heat content and the thermosteric component of sea level change of the 0–700 and 0–2000 m layers of the World Ocean for 1955–2010. Our estimates are based on historical data not previously available, additional modern data, and bathythermograph data corrected for instrumental biases. We have also used Argo data corrected by the Argo DAC if available and used uncorrected Argo data if no corrections were available at the time we downloaded the Argo data. The heat content of the World Ocean for the 0–2000 m layer increased by 24.0 ± 1.9 × 1022 J (±2S.E.) corresponding to a rate of 0.39 W m−2 (per unit area of the World Ocean) and a volume mean warming of 0.09°C. This warming corresponds to a rate of 0.27 W m−2 per unit area of earth's surface. The heat content of the World Ocean for the 0–700 m layer increased by 16.7 ± 1.6 × 1022 J corresponding to a rate of 0.27 W m−2(per unit area of the World Ocean) and a volume mean warming of 0.18°C. The World Ocean accounts for approximately 93% of the warming of the earth system that has occurred since 1955. The 700–2000 m ocean layer accounted for approximately one‐third of the warming of the 0–2000 m layer of the World Ocean. The thermosteric component of sea level trend was 0.54 ± .05 mm yr−1 for the 0–2000 m layer and 0.41 ± .04 mm yr−1 for the 0–700 m layer of the World Ocean for 1955–2010.

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Text S1. Error estimates of objectively analyzed oceanographic data, Figures S1‐S14, and Tables S1‐S3. 9 MB Open access
Text S1. Error estimates of objectively analyzed oceanographic data, Figures S1‐S14, and Tables S1‐S3 26 6 MB Open access
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How to cite 

Levitus S., Antonov Ji, Boyer Tp, Baranova Ok, Garcia He, Locamini Ra, Mishonov Av, Reagan Jr, Seidiv D, Yarosh Es, Zweng Mm (2012). World ocean heat content and thermosteric sea level change (0-2000 m), 1955-2010. Geophysical Research Letters, 39(10), L10603 (5p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1029/2012GL051106 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00661/77337/