Microorganisms from deep-sea hydrothermal vents

Type Article
Date 2021-05
Language English
Author(s) Zeng Xiang1, 3, Alain Karine2, 3, Shao Zongze1, 3
Affiliation(s) 1 : Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic Resources, Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen, 361005, China
2 : Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes LM2E UMR6197, Univ Brest, CNRS, IFREMER, F-29280, Plouzané, France
3 : LIA/IRP 1211 MicrobSea, Sino-French International Laboratory of Deep-Sea Microbiology, 29280, Plouzané, France
Source Marine Life Science & Technology (2096-6490) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2021-05 , Vol. 3 , N. 2 , P. 204-230
DOI 10.1007/s42995-020-00086-4
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) Deep-sea hydrothermal vents, Cultivation, Diversity, Biogeochemical cycle
Abstract

With a rich variety of chemical energy sources and steep physical and chemical gradients, hydrothermal vent systems offer a range of habitats to support microbial life. Cultivation-dependent and independent studies have led to an emerging view that diverse microorganisms in deep-sea hydrothermal vents live their chemolithoautotrophic, heterotrophic, or mixotrophic life with versatile metabolic strategies. Biogeochemical processes are mediated by microorganisms, and notably, processes involving or coupling the carbon, sulfur, hydrogen, nitrogen, and metal cycles in these unique ecosystems. Here, we review the taxonomic and physiological diversity of microbial prokaryotic life from cosmopolitan to endemic taxa and emphasize their significant roles in the biogeochemical processes in deep-sea hydrothermal vents. According to the physiology of the targeted taxa and their needs inferred from meta-omics data, the media for selective cultivation can be designed with a wide range of physicochemical conditions such as temperature, pH, hydrostatic pressure, electron donors and acceptors, carbon sources, nitrogen sources, and growth factors. The application of novel cultivation techniques with real-time monitoring of microbial diversity and metabolic substrates and products are also recommended.

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