Restricted dispersal in a sea of gene flow

Type Article
Date 2021-05
Language English
Author(s) Benestan L.ORCID1, Fietz K.2, Loiseau NicolasORCID3, Guerin P. E.1, Trofimenko E.2, Rühs S.ORCID2, Schmidt C.ORCID2, Rath W.ORCID2, Biastoch A.ORCID2, 4, Pérez-Ruzafa A.ORCID5, Baixauli P.ORCID5, Forcada A.ORCID6, Arcas E.ORCID6, Lenfant P.ORCID7, Mallol S.ORCID8, Goñi R.8, Velez L.ORCID3, Höppner M.4, Kininmonth S.ORCID9, Mouillot D.ORCID3, 10, Puebla O.ORCID2, 11, Manel S.ORCID1
Affiliation(s) 1 : CEFE, PSL EPHE, Université Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Université Paul-Valéry Montpellier 3, Montpellier, France
2 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany
3 : MARBEC, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, IFREMER, IRD, Montpellier, France
4 : Kiel University, Christian-Albrechts-Platz 4, 24118 Kiel, Germany
5 : Department of Ecology and Hydrology, Faculty of Biology, Espinardo, Regional Campus of International Excellence ‘Mare Nostrum’, University of Murcia, Murcia 30100, Spain
6 : Department of Marine Sciences and Applied Biology, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
7 : Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditerranéens, Université Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, 66100 Perpignan, France
8 : Instituto Español de Oceanografía, Centro Oceanográfico de Baleares, Moll de Ponent s/n, 07015 Palma de Mallorca, Spain
9 : School of Marine Studies, University of the South Pacific, Fiji
10 : Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
11 : Ecology Department, Leibniz-Centre for Tropical Marine Research, Fahrenheitstraße 6, 28359 Bremen, Germany
Source Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-biological Sciences (0962-8452) (The Royal Society), 2021-05 , Vol. 288 , N. 1951 , P. 20210458 (10p.)
DOI 10.1098/rspb.2021.0458
Keyword(s) dispersal, gene flow, isolation by distance, relatedness, marine reserves
Abstract

How far do marine larvae disperse in the ocean? Decades of population genetic studies have revealed generally low levels of genetic structure at large spatial scales (hundreds of kilometres). Yet this result, typically based on discrete sampling designs, does not necessarily imply extensive dispersal. Here, we adopt a continuous sampling strategy along 950 km of coast in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea to address this question in four species. In line with expectations, we observe weak genetic structure at a large spatial scale. Nevertheless, our continuous sampling strategy uncovers a pattern of isolation by distance at small spatial scales (few tens of kilometres) in two species. Individual-based simulations indicate that this signal is an expected signature of restricted dispersal. At the other extreme of the connectivity spectrum, two pairs of individuals that are closely related genetically were found more than 290 km apart, indicating long-distance dispersal. Such a combination of restricted dispersal with rare long-distance dispersal events is supported by a high-resolution biophysical model of larval dispersal in the study area, and we posit that it may be common in marine species. Our results bridge population genetic studies with direct dispersal studies and have implications for the design of marine reserve networks.

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Benestan L., Fietz K., Loiseau Nicolas, Guerin P. E., Trofimenko E., Rühs S., Schmidt C., Rath W., Biastoch A., Pérez-Ruzafa A., Baixauli P., Forcada A., Arcas E., Lenfant P., Mallol S., Goñi R., Velez L., Höppner M., Kininmonth S., Mouillot D., Puebla O., Manel S. (2021). Restricted dispersal in a sea of gene flow. Proceedings Of The Royal Society B-biological Sciences, 288(1951), 20210458 (10p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2021.0458 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00696/80840/