Current Status of Forecasting Toxic Harmful Algae for the North-East Atlantic Shellfish Aquaculture Industry

Type Article
Date 2021-06
Language English
Author(s) Fernandes-Salvador Jose A1, Davidson Keith2, Sourisseau MarcORCID3, Revilla Marta1, Schmidt Wiebke4, 5, Clarke Dave4, Miller Peter I6, Arce Paola2, Fernandez Raul7, Maman Luz7, Silva Alexandra8, Whyte Callum2, Mateo Maria1, Neira Patricia4, Mateus Marcos9, Ruiz-Villarreal Manuel10, Ferrera Luis1, Silke Joe4
Affiliation(s) 1 : AZTI, Marine Research, Basque Research and Technology Alliance, Pasaia, Spain
2 : Scottish Association for Marine Science, Scottish Marine Institute, Oban, United Kingdom
3 : French Research Institute for Exploitation of the Sea, Ifremer DYNECO PELAGOS, Plouzané, France
4 : Marine Institute, Galway, Ireland
5 : Environment Agency, Chief Scientist’s Group, Bristol, United Kingdom
6 : Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, United Kingdom
7 : Laboratorio de Control de Calidad de los Recursos Pesqueros, Agencia de Gestión Agraria y Pesquera de Andalucía, Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Desarrollo Sostenible, Junta de Andalucía, Cartaya, Spain
8 : Phytoplankton Laboratory, Division of Oceanography and Marine Environment, Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisbon, Portugal
9 : MARETEC – Marine, Environment and Technology Centre, LARSyS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal
10 : Centro Oceanográfico de A Coruña, Instituto Español de Oceanografía (IEO,CSIC), A Coruña, Spain
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media), 2021-06 , Vol. 8 , P. 666583 (24p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2021.666583
WOS© Times Cited 32
Keyword(s) modeling, machine learning, toxins, phytoplankton, food production, short-term, regulation, early warning systems

Across the European Atlantic Arc (Scotland, Ireland, England, France, Spain, and Portugal) the shellfish aquaculture industry is dominated by the production of mussels, followed by oysters and clams. A range of spatially and temporally variable harmful algal bloom species (HABs) impact the industry through their production of biotoxins that accumulate and concentrate in shellfish flesh, which negatively impact the health of consumers through consumption. Regulatory monitoring of harmful cells in the water column and toxin concentrations within shellfish flesh are currently the main means of warning of elevated toxin events in bivalves, with harvesting being suspended when toxicity is elevated above EU regulatory limits. However, while such an approach is generally successful in safeguarding human health, it does not provide the early warning that is needed to support business planning and harvesting by the aquaculture industry. To address this issue, a proliferation of web portals have been developed to make monitoring data widely accessible. These systems are now transitioning from “nowcasts” to operational Early Warning Systems (EWS) to better mitigate against HAB-generated harmful effects. To achieve this, EWS are incorporating a range of environmental data parameters and developing varied forecasting approaches. For example, EWS are increasingly utilizing satellite data and the results of oceanographic modeling to identify and predict the behavior of HABs. Modeling demonstrates that some HABs can be advected significant distances before impacting aquaculture sites. Traffic light indices are being developed to provide users with an easily interpreted assessment of HAB and biotoxin risk, and expert interpretation of these multiple data streams is being used to assess risk into the future. Proof-of-concept EWS are being developed to combine model information with in situ data, in some cases using machine learning-based approaches. This article: (1) reviews HAB and biotoxin issues relevant to shellfish aquaculture in the European Atlantic Arc (Scotland, Ireland, England, France, Spain, and Portugal; (2) evaluates the current status of HAB events and EWS in the region; and (3) evaluates the potential of further improving these EWS though multi-disciplinary approaches combining heterogeneous sources of information.

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Fernandes-Salvador Jose A, Davidson Keith, Sourisseau Marc, Revilla Marta, Schmidt Wiebke, Clarke Dave, Miller Peter I, Arce Paola, Fernandez Raul, Maman Luz, Silva Alexandra, Whyte Callum, Mateo Maria, Neira Patricia, Mateus Marcos, Ruiz-Villarreal Manuel, Ferrera Luis, Silke Joe (2021). Current Status of Forecasting Toxic Harmful Algae for the North-East Atlantic Shellfish Aquaculture Industry. Frontiers In Marine Science, 8, 666583 (24p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :