Birth of a large volcanic edifice offshore Mayotte via lithosphere-scale dyke intrusion

Type Article
Date 2021-10
Language English
Author(s) Feuillet NathalieORCID1, Jorry StephanORCID2, Crawford Wayne C.1, Deplus ChristineORCID1, Thinon IsabelleORCID3, Jacques Eric1, Saurel Jean Marie1, Lemoine Anne3, Paquet FabienORCID3, Satriano ClaudioORCID1, Aiken ChastityORCID2, Foix OceaneORCID1, Kowalski Philippe1, Laurent AngèleORCID1, Rinnert EmmanuelORCID2, Cathalot CecileORCID2, Donval Jean-Pierre2, Guyader VivienORCID2, Gaillot Arnaud2, Scalabrin CarlaORCID2, Moreira Manuel1, Peltier AlineORCID1, Beauducel François1, 4, Grandin RaphaëlORCID1, Ballu ValérieORCID5, Daniel Romuald1, Pelleau Pascal2, Gomez Jérémy1, Besançon Simon1, Geli LouisORCID2, Bernard Pascal1, Bachelery Patrick6, Fouquet YvesORCID2, Bertil DidierORCID3, Lemarchand ArnaudORCID1, Van Der Woerd Jérome7
Affiliation(s) 1 : Université de Paris, Institut de physique du globe de Paris, CNRS, Paris, France
2 : IFREMER, Unité Géosciences Marines, Technopole La Pointe du Diable, Plouzané, France
3 : Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières—BRGM, DGR/GBS, Orléans, France
4 : Université Grenoble Alpes, IRD, ISterre, Grenoble, France
5 : LIttoral ENvironnement et Sociétés (LIENSs) UMR7266, Université de La Rochelle—CNRS, La Rochelle, France
6 : Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, IRD, OPGC, Laboratoire Magmas et Volcans, Clermont-Ferrand, France
7 : Institut de Physique du Globe de Strasbourg UMR7516 CNRS Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France
Source Nature Geoscience (1752-0894) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2021-10 , Vol. 14 , N. 10 , P. 787-795
DOI 10.1038/s41561-021-00809-x
WOS© Times Cited 15
Abstract

Volcanic eruptions shape Earth’s surface and provide a window into deep Earth processes. How the primary asthenospheric melts form, pond and ascend through the lithosphere is, however, still poorly understood. Since 10 May 2018, magmatic activity has occurred offshore eastern Mayotte (North Mozambique channel), associated with large surface displacements, very-low-frequency earthquakes and exceptionally deep earthquake swarms. Here we present geophysical and marine data from the MAYOBS1 cruise, which reveal that by May 2019, this activity formed an 820-m-tall, ~5 km³ volcanic edifice on the seafloor. This is the largest active submarine eruption ever documented. Seismic and deformation data indicate that deep (>55 km depth) magma reservoirs were rapidly drained through dykes that intruded the entire lithosphere and that pre-existing subvertical faults in the mantle were reactivated beneath an ancient caldera structure. We locate the new volcanic edifice at the tip of a 50-km-long ridge composed of many other recent edifices and lava flows. This volcanic ridge is an extensional feature inside a wide transtensional boundary that transfers strain between the East African and Madagascar rifts. We propose that the massive eruption originated from hot asthenosphere at the base of a thick, old, damaged lithosphere.

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Feuillet Nathalie, Jorry Stephan, Crawford Wayne C., Deplus Christine, Thinon Isabelle, Jacques Eric, Saurel Jean Marie, Lemoine Anne, Paquet Fabien, Satriano Claudio, Aiken Chastity, Foix Oceane, Kowalski Philippe, Laurent Angèle, Rinnert Emmanuel, Cathalot Cecile, Donval Jean-Pierre, Guyader Vivien, Gaillot Arnaud, Scalabrin Carla, Moreira Manuel, Peltier Aline, Beauducel François, Grandin Raphaël, Ballu Valérie, Daniel Romuald, Pelleau Pascal, Gomez Jérémy, Besançon Simon, Geli Louis, Bernard Pascal, Bachelery Patrick, Fouquet Yves, Bertil Didier, Lemarchand Arnaud, Van Der Woerd Jérome (2021). Birth of a large volcanic edifice offshore Mayotte via lithosphere-scale dyke intrusion. Nature Geoscience, 14(10), 787-795. Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1038/s41561-021-00809-x , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00718/83007/