A Global Ocean Oxygen Database and Atlas for Assessing and Predicting Deoxygenation and Ocean Health in the Open and Coastal Ocean

Type Article
Date 2021-12
Language English
Author(s) Grégoire Marilaure1, Garçon Véronique2, Garcia Hernan3, Breitburg Denise4, Isensee Kirsten5, Oschlies Andreas6, Telszewski Maciej7, Barth Alexander8, Bittig Henry C.9, Carstensen Jacob10, Carval ThierryORCID11, Chai Fei12, Chavez Francisco13, Conley Daniel14, Coppola Laurent15, Crowe Sean16, Currie Kim17, Dai Minhan18, Deflandre Bruno19, Dewitte Boris20, 21, 22, Diaz Robert23, Garcia-Robledo Emilio24, Gilbert Denis25, Giorgetti Alessandra26, Glud Ronnie27, Gutierrez Dimitri28, Hosoda Shigeki29, Ishii Masao30, Jacinto Gil31, Langdon Chris32, Lauvset Siv K.33, Levin Lisa A.34, Limburg Karin E.35, Mehrtens Hela, Montes Ivonne36, Naqvi Wajih37, Paulmier Aurélien2, Pfeil Benjamin38, Pitcher Grant39, Pouliquen SylvieORCID11, Rabalais Nancy40, Rabouille Christophe41, Recape Virginie11, Roman Michaël42, Rose Kenneth43, Rudnick Daniel34, Rummer Jodie43, Schmechtig CatherineORCID15, Schmidtko Sunke6, Seibel Brad44, Slomp Caroline45, Sumalia U. Rashid46, Tanhua Toste6, Thierry VirginieORCID47, Uchida Hiroshi29, Wanninkhof Rik48, Yasuhara Moriaki49
Affiliation(s) 1 : Department of Astrophysics, MAST-FOCUS, Geophysics and Oceanography, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
2 : Laboratoire d’Études en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiales, CNRS/IRD/UPS/CNES, Toulouse, France
3 : National Centers for Environmental Information, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Maryland, MD, United States
4 : Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD, United States
5 : Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO, Paris, France
6 : GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany
7 : International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project, Institute of Oceanology of Polish Academy of Sciences, Sopot, Poland
8 : Department of Astrophysics, GHER-FOCUS, Geophysics and Oceanography, University of Liège, Liège, Belgium
9 : Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde, Rostock, Germany
10 : Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark
11 : Coriolis, IFREMER, Brest, France
12 : School of Marine Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States
13 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Moss Landing, CA, United States
14 : Department of Geology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
15 : CNRS, Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, LOV, Sorbonne Université, Villefranche-sur-Mer, France
16 : Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada
17 : NIWA, Auckland, New-Zealand
18 : Department of Oceanography, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China
19 : CNRS, EPOC, EPHE, UMR 5805, Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France
20 : Centro de Estudios Avanzado en Zonas Áridas, La Serena, Chile
21 : Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Católica del Norte, Coquimbo, Chile
22 : CECI, Université de Toulouse, CERFACS/CNRS, Toulouse, France
23 : Department of Biological Sciences, University of Virginia, Virginia, VA, United States
24 : Department of Biology, University of Cadiz, Cadiz, Spain
25 : Maurice-Lamontagne Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Mont-Joli, QC, Canada
26 : Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Trieste, Italy
27 : Department of Biology, Danish Institute for Advanced Study, Odense, Denmark
28 : Dirección General de Investigaciones Oceanográficas y de Cambio Climático, Instituto del Perú, Callao, Peru
29 : Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokosuka, Japan
30 : Department of Climate and Geochemistry, Meteorological Research Institute, Ibaraki, Japan
31 : The Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines
32 : Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States
33 : NORCE Norwegian Research Centre, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway
34 : Integrative Oceanography Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, United States
35 : State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, United States
36 : Instituto Geofísico del Perú, Lima, Peru
37 : Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India
38 : Geophysical Research, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
39 : Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa
40 : Department of Oceanography and Coastal Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, United States
41 : Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
42 : Horn Point Laboratory, University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, Cambridge, MD, United States
43 : ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
44 : College of Marine Science, University of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL, United States
45 : Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands
46 : Fisheries Economics Research Unit, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
47 : Ifremer, CNRS, IRD, LOPS, University of Brest, Plouzané, France
48 : Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory, NOAA, Miami, FL, United States
49 : School of Biological Sciences, Division for Ecology and Biodiversity, Swire Institute of Marine Science, and State Key Laboratory of Marine Pollution, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
Source Frontiers In Marine Science (2296-7745) (Frontiers Media SA), 2021-12 , Vol. 8 , P. 724913 (29p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmars.2021.724913
WOS© Times Cited 25
Keyword(s) oxygen, atlas, database, observing, mapping, data-products, open and coastal ocean, deoxygenation

In this paper, we outline the need for a coordinated international effort toward the building of an open-access Global Ocean Oxygen Database and ATlas (GO2DAT) complying with the FAIR principles (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable). GO2DAT will combine data from the coastal and open ocean, as measured by the chemical Winkler titration method or by sensors (e.g., optodes, electrodes) from Eulerian and Lagrangian platforms (e.g., ships, moorings, profiling floats, gliders, ships of opportunities, marine mammals, cabled observatories). GO2DAT will further adopt a community-agreed, fully documented metadata format and a consistent quality control (QC) procedure and quality flagging (QF) system. GO2DAT will serve to support the development of advanced data analysis and biogeochemical models for improving our mapping, understanding and forecasting capabilities for ocean O2 changes and deoxygenation trends. It will offer the opportunity to develop quality-controlled data synthesis products with unprecedented spatial (vertical and horizontal) and temporal (sub-seasonal to multi-decadal) resolution. These products will support model assessment, improvement and evaluation as well as the development of climate and ocean health indicators. They will further support the decision-making processes associated with the emerging blue economy, the conservation of marine resources and their associated ecosystem services and the development of management tools required by a diverse community of users (e.g., environmental agencies, aquaculture, and fishing sectors). A better knowledge base of the spatial and temporal variations of marine O2 will improve our understanding of the ocean O2 budget, and allow better quantification of the Earth’s carbon and heat budgets. With the ever-increasing need to protect and sustainably manage ocean services, GO2DAT will allow scientists to fully harness the increasing volumes of O2 data already delivered by the expanding global ocean observing system and enable smooth incorporation of much higher quantities of data from autonomous platforms in the open ocean and coastal areas into comprehensive data products in the years to come. This paper aims at engaging the community (e.g., scientists, data managers, policy makers, service users) toward the development of GO2DAT within the framework of the UN Global Ocean Oxygen Decade (GOOD) program recently endorsed by IOC-UNESCO. A roadmap toward GO2DAT is proposed highlighting the efforts needed (e.g., in terms of human resources).

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Grégoire Marilaure, Garçon Véronique, Garcia Hernan, Breitburg Denise, Isensee Kirsten, Oschlies Andreas, Telszewski Maciej, Barth Alexander, Bittig Henry C., Carstensen Jacob, Carval Thierry, Chai Fei, Chavez Francisco, Conley Daniel, Coppola Laurent, Crowe Sean, Currie Kim, Dai Minhan, Deflandre Bruno, Dewitte Boris, Diaz Robert, Garcia-Robledo Emilio, Gilbert Denis, Giorgetti Alessandra, Glud Ronnie, Gutierrez Dimitri, Hosoda Shigeki, Ishii Masao, Jacinto Gil, Langdon Chris, Lauvset Siv K., Levin Lisa A., Limburg Karin E., Mehrtens Hela, Montes Ivonne, Naqvi Wajih, Paulmier Aurélien, Pfeil Benjamin, Pitcher Grant, Pouliquen Sylvie, Rabalais Nancy, Rabouille Christophe, Recape Virginie, Roman Michaël, Rose Kenneth, Rudnick Daniel, Rummer Jodie, Schmechtig Catherine, Schmidtko Sunke, Seibel Brad, Slomp Caroline, Sumalia U. Rashid, Tanhua Toste, Thierry Virginie, Uchida Hiroshi, Wanninkhof Rik, Yasuhara Moriaki (2021). A Global Ocean Oxygen Database and Atlas for Assessing and Predicting Deoxygenation and Ocean Health in the Open and Coastal Ocean. Frontiers In Marine Science, 8, 724913 (29p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2021.724913 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00741/85338/