Unraveling the Gonyaulax baltica Species Complex: Cyst–theca Relationship of Impagidinium variaseptum, Spiniferites pseudodelicatus sp. nov. and S. ristingensis (Gonyaulacaceae, Dinophyceae), With Descriptions of Gonyaulax bohaiensis sp. nov, G. amoyensis sp. nov. and G. portimonensis sp. nov.
|Author(s)||Gu Haifeng1, Mertens Kenneth2, Derrien Amelie2, Bilien Gwenael2, Li Zhen3, Hess Philipp4, Séchet Veronique4, Krock Bernd5, Amorim Ana6, Li Zhun7, Pospelova Vera8, Smith Kirsty F.9, Mackenzie Lincoln9, Yoon Joo Yeon10, Kim Hyun Jung10, Shin Hyeon Ho10|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Department of Marine Biology and Ecology Third Institute of Oceanography Ministry of Natural Resources Xiamen 361005, China
2 : Ifremer LITTORAL Place de la Croix, BP40537 29900 CEDEX, France
3 : Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences University of British Columbia 329 West Mall Vancouver British Columbia V6T 1Z4 ,Canada
4 : Ifremer Laboratoire Phycotoxines Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu 44311 Nantes, France
5 : Department of Ecological Chemistry Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research Am Handelshafen 12 Bremerhaven D‐27570, Germany
6 : Centro de Ciências do Mar e do Ambiente (MARE) Departamento de Biologia Vegetal Faculdade de Ciências Universidade de Lisboa 1749‐016 Lisboa, Portugal
7 : Biological Resource Center Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology Jeongeup 56212 ,Korea
8 : Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences University of Minnesota 116 Church Street SE Minneapolis Minnesota 55455, USA
9 : Cawthron Institute 98 Halifax Street East, Private Bag 2 Nelson 7042 ,New Zealand
10 : Library of Marine Samples Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology Geoje 53201, Korea
|Source||Journal Of Phycology (0022-3646) (Wiley), 2022-06 , Vol. 58 , N. 3 , P. 465-486|
|WOS© Times Cited||3|
|Keyword(s)||Dinophyte, DNA sequencing, Impagidinium, LSU, Spiniferites, SSU, yessotoxin|
The taxonomy of the extant dinoflagellate genus Gonyaulax is challenging since its thecate morphology is rather conservative. In contrast, cysts of Gonyaulax are varied in morphology and have been related with the fossil-based genera Spiniferites and Impagidinium. To better understand the systematics of Gonyaulax species, we performed germination experiments on cysts that can be identified as S. ristingensis, an unidentified Spiniferites with petaloid processes here described as Spiniferites pseudodelicatus sp. nov. and Impagidinium variaseptum from Chinese and Portuguese waters. Despite marked differences in cyst morphology, motile cells of S. pseudodelicatus and I. variaseptum are indistinguishable from Gonyaulax baltica. Motile cells hatched from S. ristingensis are morphologically similar to G. baltica as well but differ in the presence of one pronounced antapical spine. Three new species, Gonyaulax amoyensis (cyst equivalent S. pseudodelicatus), Gonyaulax bohaiensis (cyst equivalent I. variaseptum) and Gonyaulax portimonensis (cyst equivalent S. ristingensis) were erected. In addition, a new ribotype (B) of G. baltica was reported from South Korea and a bloom of G. baltica ribotype B is reported from New Zealand. Molecular phylogeny based on LSU and SSU rRNA gene sequences revealed that Gonyaulax species with minute or short antapical spines formed a well resolved clade, whereas species with two pronounced antapical spines or lack of antapical spines formed the sister clade. Six strains of four above species were examined for yessotoxin production by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, and very low concentrations of yessotoxin were detected for one G. bohaiensis strain.