Wide Distribution and Specific Resistance Pattern to Third-Generation Cephalosporins of Enterobacter cloacae Complex Members in Humans and in the Environment in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

Species belonging to Enterobacter cloacae complex have been isolated in numerous environments and samples of various origins. They are also involved in opportunistic infections in plants, animals, and humans. Previous prospection in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) indicated a high frequency of E. cloacae complex strains resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs) in a local lizard population (Anolis marmoratus), but knowledge of the distribution and resistance of these strains in humans and the environment is limited. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of E. cloacae complex members from different sources in a "one health" approach and to find possible explanations for the high level of resistance in non-human samples. E. cloacae complex strains were collected between January 2017 and the end of 2018 from anoles, farm animals, local fresh produce, water, and clinical human samples. Isolates were characterized by the heat-shock protein 60 gene-fragment typing method, and whole-genome sequencing was conducted on the most frequent clusters (i.e., C-VI and C-VIII). The prevalence of resistance to 3GCs was relatively high (56/346, 16.2%) in non-human samples. The associated resistance mechanism was related to an AmpC overproduction; however, in human samples, most of the resistant strains (40/62) produced an extended-spectrum beta-lactamase. No relation was found between resistance in isolates from wild anoles (35/168) and human activities. Specific core-genome phylogenetic analysis highlighted an important diversity in this bacterial population and no wide circulation among the different compartments. In our setting, the mutations responsible for resistance to 3GCs, especially in ampD, were diverse and not compartment specific. In conclusion, high levels of resistance in non-human E. cloacae complex isolates are probably due to environmental factors that favor the selection of these resistant strains, and this will be explored further.


Anolis marmoratus, cephalosporinase overproduction, Enterobacter cloacae complex, ESBL, hsp60, one health, phylogeny, Caribbean

Full Text

Publisher's official version
146 Mo
upplementary Figure 1 | Maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree based on the partial sequence hsp60 gene of E. cloacae complex (ECC) isolates recovered in Guadeloupe (n = 313). Maximum likelihood ...
122 Mo
Supplementary Table 1 | Details of non-clinical samples: sampling date, location, type of environment, farm characteristics.
-30 Ko
Supplementary Table 2 | Details of strains: hsp60 partial sequence and results for antibiotic resistance. Resistance profiles were obtained against 16 antibiotics. Intermediate or resistant results...
-70 Ko
Supplementary Table 3 | Details of genetic content of sequenced E. hormaechei subsp. xiangfangensis (C-VI – clade A; n = 42) and E. hormaechei subsp. steigerwaltii (C-VIII – clade B; n = 86).
-70 Ko
Supplementary Table 4 | Cephalosporinase gene complex mutation. ∗Clone numbers refer to letters used in Figures 1, 2 and correspond to two strains from the same sample with different resistance ...
-74 Ko
How to cite
Pot Matthieu, Reynaud Yann, Couvin David, Ducat Celia, Ferdinand Severine, Gravey Francois, Gruel Gaelle, Guerin Francois, Malpote Edith, Breurec Sebastien, Talarmin Antoine, Guyomard-Rabenirina Stephanie (2021). Wide Distribution and Specific Resistance Pattern to Third-Generation Cephalosporins of Enterobacter cloacae Complex Members in Humans and in the Environment in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Frontiers In Microbiology. 12. 628058 (14p.). https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.628058, https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00771/88277/

Copy this text