Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus, Surrogate for Coronavirus Decay Measurement in French Coastal Waters and Contribution to Coronavirus Risk Evaluation
|Author(s)||Contrant Maud1, Bigault Lionel1, Andraud Mathieu2, Desdouits Marion3, Rocq Sophie3, Le Guyader Soizick3, Blanchard Yannick1|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : Viral Genetics and Biosecurity Unit (GVB), French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan, France
2 : Epidemiology, Animal Health and Welfare Unit (EPISABE), French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (ANSES), Ploufragan, France
3 : Ifremer, laboratoire de Microbiologie, SG2M/LSEM, BP 21105, Nantes, France
|Source||Microbiology Spectrum (2165-0497) (American Society for Microbiology), 2023-08 , Vol. 11 , N. 4 , P. 13p.|
|Keyword(s)||SARS-CoV-2, seawater, half-life, PEDv, environment, surrogate|
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in infected patients mainly displays pulmonary and oronasal tropism; however, the presence of the virus has also been demonstrated in the stools of patients and consequently in wastewater treatment plant effluents, raising the question of the potential risk of environmental contamination (such as seawater contamination) through inadequately treated wastewater spillover into surface or coastal waters even if the environmental detection of viral RNA alone does not substantiate risk of infection. Therefore, here, we decided to experimentally evaluate the persistence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv), considered as a coronavirus representative model, in the coastal environment of France. Coastal seawater was collected, sterile-filtered, and inoculated with PEDv before incubation for 0 to 4 weeks at four temperatures representative of those measured along the French coasts throughout the year (4, 8, 15, and 24°C). The decay rate of PEDv was determined using mathematical modeling and was used to determine the half-life of the virus along the French coast in accordance with temperatures from 2000 to 2021. We experimentally observed an inverse correlation between seawater temperature and the persistence of infectious viruses in seawater and confirm that the risk of transmission of infectious viruses from contaminated stool in wastewater to seawater during recreational practices is very limited. The present work represents a good model to assess the persistence of coronaviruses in coastal environments and contributes to risk evaluation, not only for SARS-CoV-2 persistence, but also for other coronaviruses, specifically enteric coronaviruses from livestock.