State of the Climate in 2010
|Author(s)||Achberger Christine1, Ackerman Steven A.1, Ahlstrom A.2, Alfaro Eric J., Allan Robert J., Alves Robert J., Amador Jorge A., Amelie Vincent, Andrianjafinirina Solonomenjanahary, Antonov John, Arndt Derek S., Ashik Igor, Atheru Zachary, Attaher Samar M., Baez Julian, Banzon Viva, Baringer Molly O., Barreira Sandra, Barriopedro David, Barthia Pawan K., Beal Lisa M., Becker Andreas, Behrenfeld Michael J., Bell Gerald D., Belward Alan S., Benedetti Angela, Berrisford Paul, Berry David I., Beszczynska-Moeller Agnieszka, Bhatt Uma S., Bidegain Mario, Bindoff Nathaniel L., Bissolli Peter, Blake Eric S., Blunden Jessica, Booneeady Prithiviraj, Bosilovich Michael G., Boudet Dagne R., Box Jason E., Boyer Timothy P., Bromwich David H., Brown Ross, Bryden Harry L., Bulygina Olga N., Burrows John, Butler J., Cais Philippe, Calderon Blanca, Callaghan T. V., Camargo Suzana J., Cappelen John, Carmack Eddy, Chambers Don P., Chelliah Muthuvel, Chidichimo Maria P., Christiansen H., Christy John, Coehlo Caio A. S., Colwell Steve, Comiso Josefino C., Compo Gilber P., Crouch Jake, Cunningham Stuart A., Cutie Virgen C., Dai Aiguo, Davydova-Belitskaya Valentina, de Jeu Richard, Decker David, Dee Dick, Demircan M., Derksen Chris, Diamond Howard J., Dlugokencky Howard, Dohan Kathleen, Dolman A. Johannes, Dorigo Wouter, Drozdov Dmitry S., Durack Paul J., Dutton Geoffrey S., Easterling David, Ebita Ayataka, Eischeid Jon, Elkins James W., Epstein Howard E., Euscategui Christian, Faijka-Williams Eleanor, Famiglietti James S., Faniriantsoa Rija, Feely Richard A., Fekete Balazs M., Fenimore Chris, Fettweis Xavier, Field Eric, Fioletov Vitali E., Fogarty Vitali E., Fogt Ryan L., Forbes B. C., Foster Michael J., Frajka-Williams E., Free Melissa, Frolov Ivan, Ganesan A. L., Ganter Catherine, Gibney Ethan J., Gill Stephen, Gill M., Gitau Wilson, Gleason Karin L., Gobron Nadine, Goldenberg Stanley B., Goni Gustavo J., Gonzalez Idelmis G., Good Simon A., Gottschalck Jonathan, Gould William A., Gouveia Celia M., Griffiths Georgina M., Guard Chip, Guevara Vladimir V., Haas C., Hall Bradley D., Halpert Michael S., Heidinger Andrew K., Heil A., Heim Richard R., Jr., Hennon Paula A., Henry Greg H. R., Hidalgo Hugo G., Hilburn Kyle, Hirschi Joel J. M., Ho Shu-Peng, Hobgood Jay S., Hoerling Martin, Holgate Simon, Hook Simon J., Hugony Sebastien, Hurst D., Ishihara Hiroshi, Itoh M., Jaimes Ena, Jeffries Martin, Jia Gensu J., Jin Xiangze, John William E., Johnson Bryan, Johnson Gregory C., Jones Philip D., Jumaux Guillaume, Kabidi Khadija, Kaiser Johannes W., Kanzow Torsten O., Kaplan Alexey, Kearns Edward J., Keller Linda M., Kennedy John J., Khatiwala Samar, Kholodov Alexander, Khoshkam Mahbobeh, Kikuchi T., Kimberlain Todd B., Knaff John A., Kobayashi Shinya, Kokelj Steve V., Korshunova Natalia N., Kratz David P., Krishfield Richard, Kruger Andries, Kruk Michael C., Kumar Arun , Lammers Richard B., Lander Mark A., Landsea Chris W., Lantuit Hugues, Lantz Trevor C., Lapinel Braulio P., Lareef Zubair, Lazzara Matthew A., Leon Antonia L, Leon Gloria, Lauliette Eric, Levitus Sydney, Levy Joel M., L'Heureux Michelle, Lin I. I., Liu Hongxing, Liu Yanju, Liu Yi, Loeb Norman G., Long Craig S., Lorrey Andrew M., Lumpkin Rick, Luo Jing-Jia, Lyman John M., Macdonald Alison M., Maddux Brent C., Maier Frank, Malkova Galina, Marchenko Sergey, Marengo Jose A., Maritorena Stephane, Marotzke Jochem, Martinez Guingla Rodney, Maslanik Jochem, Masson Robert A., McBride Charlotte, McGree Simon, McLaughlin Fiona, McPeters Rich, McVicar Tim R., Mears Carl A., Medany Mahmoud A., Meier Walt, Meinen Christopher S., Merrifield Mark A., Miller Laury, Mitchum Gary T., Montzka Steve, Morcrette Jean-Jacques, Mote Thomas, Muhle Jens, Mullan A. Brett, Murray Don, Nash Eric R., Nerem Steven R., Newman Paul A., Nishino S., Njau Leonard, Noetzli J., Oberbauer S. F., Oberman Naum, Obregon Andre, Ogallo Laban, Oludhe Christopher, O'Malley Robert T., Overland James, Park Geun-Ha, Parker David E., Pasch Richard J., Pegion Phil, Peltier Alexandre, Pelto Mauri S., Penalba Olga C., Perez Ramon S, Perlwitz Judith, Perovich Donald, Peterson Thomas C., Pezza Alexandre B., Phillips David, Pinzon Jorge E., Pitts Michael C., Proshutinsky A., Quegan S., Quintana Juan, Quintero Alexander, Rabe B., Rahimzadeh Fatemeh, Rajeevan Madhavan, Rayner Darren, Rayner Nick A., Raynolds Martha K., Razuvaev Vyacheslav N., Reagan James R., Reid Phillip, Renwick James A., Revadekar Jayashree, Reynolds Richard W., Richter-Menge Jacqueline, Rignot Eric, Robinson David A., Rodell Matthew, Rogers Mark, Romanovsky Vladimir, Romero-Cruz Fernando, Ronchail Josyane, Rosenlof Karen, Rossi Shawn, Rutledge Glenn, Saatchi Sassan, Sabine Christopher L., Saha Suranjana, Sanchez-Lugo Ahira, Santee Michelle L., Sato Hitoshi, Sawaengphokhai P., Sayouri Amal, Scambos Ted A., Schauer U., Schemm Jae, Schmid Claudia, Schneider Philipp, Schueller Dominique, Sensoy Serhat, Sharp Martin, Shaver Gus R., Shiklomanov Alexander, Shiklomanov N., Shimada Koji, Siegel David A., Simmons Adrian, Skansi Maria, Smith Adam, Smith Cathy, Smith S., Smith Thomas M., Sokolov Vladimir, Spence Jacqueline M., Srivastava Arvind Kumar, Stackhouse Paul W., Jr., Stammerjohn Sharon, Steele Mike, Steinbrecht Wolfgang, Stephenson Tannecia S., Stolarski Richard S., Tahani Lloyd, Takahashi Taro, Taylor Michael A., Thepaut Jean-Noel, Thiaw Wassila M., Thorne Peter W., Timmermans M. L., Tobin Skie, Toole John, Trewin Blair C., Trigo Ricardo M., Tucker Compton J., Tweedie Craig E., Van As D., Van De Wal R. S. W., Van Der a Ronald J., Van Der Werf G. R., Vautard Robert, Vieira G., Vincent Lucie A., Vinther Lucie A., Vinther B., Vose Russell, Wagner Wolfgang, Wahr John, Walker David A., Walsh John, Wang Chunzai, Wang Junhong, Wang Lei, Wang Muyin, Wang Sheng-Hung, Wanninkhof Rik, Weaver Scott, Webber Patrick J., Weber Mark, Weller Robert A., Weyman James, Whitewood Robert, Wijffels Susan E., Wilber Anne C., Willett Katharine M., Williams W., Willis Joshua K., Wolken Gabriel, Wong Takmeng, Woodgate Rebecca, Woodworth Philip, Wovrosh Alex J., Xue Yan, Yamamoto-Kawai M., Yin Xungang, Yu Lisan, Zhang Liangying, Zhang Peiqun, Zhao L., Zhou Xinjia, Zimmermann S.|
|Affiliation(s)||1 : NOAA, STG Inc, NESDIS Natl Climat Data Ctr, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
2 : NOAA, OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL USA.
|Source||Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society (0003-0007) (Amer Meteorological Soc), 2011-06 , Vol. 92 , N. 6 , P. S1-S236|
|WOS© Times Cited||104|
Several large-scale climate patterns influenced climate conditions and weather patterns across the globe during 2010. The transition from a warm El Nino phase at the beginning of the year to a cool La Nina phase by July contributed to many notable events, ranging from record wetness across much of Australia to historically low Eastern Pacific basin and near-record high North Atlantic basin hurricane activity. The remaining five main hurricane basins experienced below-to well-below-normal tropical cyclone activity. The negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation was a major driver of Northern Hemisphere temperature patterns during 2009/10 winter and again in late 2010. It contributed to record snowfall and unusually low temperatures over much of northern Eurasia and parts of the United States, while bringing above-normal temperatures to the high northern latitudes. The February Arctic Oscillation Index value was the most negative since records began in 1950. The 2010 average global land and ocean surface temperature was among the two warmest years on record. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate of lower latitudes. The eastern and tropical Pacific Ocean cooled about 1 C from 2009 to 2010, reflecting the transition from the 2009/10 El Nino to the 2010/11 La Nina. Ocean heat fluxes contributed to warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Atlantic and the tropical Indian and western Pacific Oceans. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for the past several years have reached values consistently higher than for all prior times in the record, demonstrating the dominant role of the ocean in the Earth's energy budget. Deep and abyssal waters of Antarctic origin have also trended warmer on average since the early 1990s. Lower tropospheric temperatures typically lag ENSO surface fluctuations by two to four months, thus the 2010 temperature was dominated by the warm phase El Nino conditions that occurred during the latter half of 2009 and early 2010 and was second warmest on record. The stratosphere continued to be anomalously cool. Annual global precipitation over land areas was about five percent above normal. Precipitation over the ocean was drier than normal after a wet year in 2009. Overall, saltier (higher evaporation) regions of the ocean surface continue to be anomalously salty, and fresher (higher precipitation) regions continue to be anomalously fresh. This salinity pattern, which has held since at least 2004, suggests an increase in the hydrological cycle. Sea ice conditions in the Arctic were significantly different than those in the Antarctic during the year. The annual minimum ice extent in the Arctic reached in September was the third lowest on record since 1979. In the Antarctic, zonally averaged sea ice extent reached an all-time record maximum from mid-June through late August and again from mid-November through early December. Corresponding record positive Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode Indices influenced the Antarctic sea ice extents. Greenland glaciers lost more mass than any other year in the decade-long record. The Greenland Ice Sheet lost a record amount of mass, as the melt rate was the highest since at least 1958, and the area and duration of the melting was greater than any year since at least 1978. High summer air temperatures and a longer melt season also caused a continued increase in the rate of ice mass loss from small glaciers and ice caps in the Canadian Arctic. Coastal sites in Alaska show continuous permafrost warming and sites in Alaska, Canada, and Russia indicate more significant warming in relatively cold permafrost than in warm permafrost in the same geographical area. With regional differences, permafrost temperatures are now up to 2 C warmer than they were 20 to 30 years ago. Preliminary data indicate there is a high probability that 2010 will be the 20th consecutive year that alpine glaciers have lost mass. Atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations continued to rise and ozone depleting substances continued to decrease. Carbon dioxide increased by 2.60 ppm in 2010, a rate above both the 2009 and the 1980-2010 average rates. The global ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2009 transition period from La Nina to El Nino conditions, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, is estimated to be similar to the long-term average. The 2010 Antarctic ozone hole was among the lowest 20% compared with other years since 1990, a result of warmer-than-average temperatures in the Antarctic stratosphere during austral winter between mid-July and early September.