State of the Climate in 2017

Type Article
Date 2018-08
Language English
Author(s) Arndt D. S.1, Blunden J.1, Hartfield G.321, Ackerman Steven A.5, Adler Robert6, Alfaro Eric J.7, 8, Allan Richard P.9, Allan Rob2, Alves Lincoln M.11, Amador Jorge A.7, 8, Andreassen L. M.12, Argueez Anthony1, Arndt Derek S.1, Azorin-Molina Cesar16, Baez Julian17, Bardin M. U.18, Barichivich Jonathan19, 20, 21, Baringer Molly O.22, Barreira Sandra23, Baxter Stephen24, Beck H. E.25, Becker Andreas26, Bedka Kristopher M.27, Bell Gerald D.24, Belmont M.29, Benedetti Angela30, Berrisford Paul30, Berry David I.32, Bhatt U. S.34, Bissolli Peter37, Bjerke J.38, Blake Eric S.39, Bosilovich Michael G.40, Boucher OlivierORCID41, Box J. E.43, Boyer Tim1, Braathen Geir O.44, Bromwich David H.46, Brown R.47, Buehler S.48, Bulygina Olga N.49, Burgess D.50, Calderon Blanca7, Camargo Suzana J.ORCID51, Campbell Jayaka D.52, Cappelen J.53, Carrea Laura55, Carter Brendan R.56, 57, Chambers Don P.58, Cheng Ming-Dean60, 61, Christiansen Hanne H.62, Christy John R.63, Chung E. -S.65, Clem Kyle R.66, Coelho Caio A. S.67, Coldewey-Egbers Melanie68, Colwell Steve69, Cooper Owen R.14, 70, Copland L.71, Crouch Jake1, Davis Sean M.70, De Eyto Elvira72, De Jeu Richard A. M.73, De Laat Jos74, Degasperi Curtis L.75, Degenstein Doug76, Demircan M.77, Derksen C.78, Di Girolamo Larry79, Diamond Howard J.80, Dlugokencky Ed J.14, Dohan Kathleen82, Dokulil Martin T.83, Dolman A. Johannes84, Domingues Catia M.ORCID85, 86, Donat Markus G.87, Dong Shenfu88, Dorigo Wouter A.64, Drozdov D. S.89, 90, Dunn Robert J. H., Dutton Geoff S.70, Elkharrim M.91, Elkins James W., Epstein H. E.92, Espinoza Jhan C.93, Famiglietti James S.95, Farrell S.96, Fausto R. S.98, Feely Richard A., Feng Z.99, Fenimore Chris, Fettweis X.100, Fioletov Vitali E., Flemming Johannes30, Fogt Ryan L.102, Folland Chris2, 103, 104, Forbes B. C.105, Foster Michael J.5, Francis S. D.106, Franz Bryan A.107, Frey Richard A.5, Frith Stacey M.107, 108, Froidevaux Lucien95, Ganter Catherine59, Gerland S.109, Gilson John110, Gobron Nadine111, Goldenberg Stanley B., Goni Gustavo, Grooss J. -U.114, Gruber AlexanderORCID, Guard Charles115, Gupta S. K.116, Gutierrez J. M.117, Haas C.118, 119, Hagos S.120, Hahn Sebastian, Haimberger Leo121, Hall Brad D., Halpert Michael S., Hamlington Benjamin D.122, Hanna E.123, Hanssen-Bauer I124, Harris Ian126, 127, Heidinger Andrew K.128, Heim Richard R., Jr.129, Hendricks S.130, Hernandez Marieta131, Hernandez Rafael132, Hidalgo Hugo G., Ho Shu-Peng133, Hobbs William R.134, Huang Boyin, Hurst Dale F., Ialongo I.136, Ijampy J. A.137, Inness Antje138, Isaksen K.139, Ishii Masayoshi140, Jevrejeva Svetlana, Jimenez C.141, 142, Jin Xiangze 143, John Viju2, 144, Johns William E.145, Johnsen B.146, Johnson Bryan147, 148, Johnson Gregory C., Johnson Kenneth S.149, Jones Philip D.150, Jumaux Guillaume151, Kabidi Khadija152, Kaiser J. W.153, Kato Seiji, Kazemi A.155, Keller Linda M.157, Kennedy John, Kerr Kenneth3, Kholodov A. L.34, Khoshkam Mahbobeh18, Killick Rachel2, Kim Hyungjun161, Kim S. -J.162, Klotzbach Philip J.163, Knaff John A.ORCID164, Kohler J.165, Korhonen Johanna166, Korshunova Natalia N.167, Kramarova Natalya168, Kratz D. P.27, Kruger Andries169, Kruk Michael C.170, Krumpen T.118, Lakatos M.171, Lakkala K.172, Lander Mark A.174, Landschuetzer Peter175, Landsea Chris W.39, Lankhorst Matthias110, Lazzara Matthew A.176, 177, Leuliette Eric178, L'Heureux Michelle24, Lieser Jan L.180, Lin I-IORCID60, Liu Hongxing181, Liu Yinghui5, Locarnini Ricardo182, Loeb Norman G.27, Long Craig S.183, Lorrey Andrew M.185, Loyola Diego68, Lumpkin RickORCID22, Luo Jing-JiaORCID186, Luojus K.136, Lyman John M.57, 187, Macias-Fauria M.189, Malkova G. V.89, 90, Manney G.190, 191, Marchenko S. S.34, Marengo Jose A.192, Marra John J.1, Marszelewski Wlodzimierz193, Martens B.194, Martinez-Gueingla Rodney195, Massom Robert A.196, 197, May Linda199, Mayer Michael121, Mazloff MatthewORCID110, McBride Charlotte169, McCabe M. F.200, McCarthy M.2, McVicar Tim R.203, 204, 205, Mears Carl A.206, Meier W.107, Mekonnen A.207, Mengistu Tsidu G.208, 209, Menzel W. Paul176, Merchant Christopher J., Meredith Michael P.69, Merrifield Mark A.187, Miralles Diego G.194, Mitchum Gary T.58, Mitro Srkani213, Monselesan Didier214, Montzka Stephen A.14, Mora Natalie7, 8, Morice Colin2, Mote T.215, Mudryk L.47, Muehle Jens110, Mullan A. Brett185, Mueller R.114, Nash Eric R.168, Nerem R. Steven70, Newman LouiseORCID216, Newman Paul A.107, Nieto Juan Jose195, Noetzli Jeannette217, O'Neel S.218, Osborn Tim J.127, Overland J.57, Oyunjargal Lamjav219, Park E-Hyung220, Pasch Richard J.39, Pascual-Ramirez Reynaldo221, Paterson Andrew M.222, Pearce Petra R.185, Pelto Mauri S.224, Perkins-Kirkpatrick Sarah E.87, Perovich D.225, 226, Petropavlovskikh Irina147, 148, Pezza Alexandre B.227, Phillips C.157, Phillips David45, Phoenix G.228, Pinty Bernard111, Rajeevan Madhavan233, Rayner Darren201, Raynolds M. K.234, Reagan James96, 182, Reid Phillip186, 237, Reimer Christoph64, 238, Remy Samuel41, Revadekar Jayashree V.240, Richter-Menge J.241, Rimmer Alon242, Robinson David A.243, Rodell MatthewORCID244, Romanovsky Vladimir E.34, 246, Ronchail Josyane247, Rosenlof Karen H.14, Roth Chris76, Rusak James A.222, Sallee Jean-Bapiste69, 223, Sanchez-Lugo Ahira182, Santee Michelle L.249, Sawaengphokhai P.108, Sayouri Amal152, Scambos Ted A.251, Schladow S. Geoffrey252, Schmid ClaudiaORCID22, Schmid Martin253, Schreck Carl J., Iii255, Schuur Ted256, Selkirk H. B.257, Send Uwe110, Sensoy Serhat77, Sharp M.258, Shi Lei182, Shiklomanov Nikolai I.259, Shimaraeva Svetlana V.260, Siegel David A.261, Signorini Sergio R.262, Sima Fatou263, Simmons Adrian J.30, Smeed David A.32, Smeets C. J. P. P.264, Smith Adam182, Smith Sharon L.265, Soden B.65, Spence Jaqueline M.266, Srivastava A. K.267, Stackhouse Paul W., Jr.27, Stammerjohn Sharon268, Steinbrecht WolfgangORCID269, Stella Jose L.270, Stephenson Tannecia S.52, Strahan Susan257, Streletskiy Dimitri A.259, Sun-Mack Sunny108, Swart Sebastiaan271, Sweet William272, Tamar Gerard273, Taylor Michael A.52, Tedesco M.51, 274, Thoman R. L.275, Thompson L.276, Thompson Philip R.187, Timmermans M. -L.277, Tobin Skie59, Trachte Katja279, Trewin Blair C.186, Trotman Adrian R.280, Tschudi M.281, Van As D.43, Van De Wal R. S. W.264, Van Der Schalie Robin73, Van Der Schrier Gerard74, Van Der Werf Guido R.283, Van Meerbeeck Cedric J.280, Velicogna I.284, Verburg Piet188, Vincent Lucie A.113, Voemel Holger286, Vose Russell S.182, Wagner WolfgangORCID64, Walker D. A.234, Walsh J.159, Wang Bin287, 288, Wang Chunzai289, Wang Junhong135, Wang Lei290, Wang M.56, Wang Sheng-Hung46, Wanninkhof Rik22, Watanabe Shohei252, Weber Mark291, Weller Robert A.143, Weyhenmeyer Gesa A., Whitewood Robert113, Wiese David N.95, Wijffels Susan E.214, Wilber Anne C.108, Wild Jeanette D.293, Willett Kate M.2, Willis Josh K.95, Wolken G.159, Wong Takmeng27, Wood E. F.25, Woolway R. Iestyn211, Wouters B.295, Xue Yan183, Yin Xungang170, Yu Lisan143, Zambrano Eduardo195, Zhang Huai-Min1, Zhang Peiqun296, Zhao Guanguo79, Zhao LinORCID297, Ziemke Jerry R.107, 298, Abernethy R.2, Albanil Encarnacion Adelina221, Aldeco Laura S.270, Aliaga-Nestares Vannia299, Anderson John300, Armitage C.301, Avalos Grinia299, Behe Carolina302, Bellouin Nicolas55, Bernhard G. H.31, Blenkinsop Stephen303, Bolmgren K.304, Bouchon Marilu305, Campbell Ethan C.306, Castro Anabel299, Costanza Carol176, Covey Curt307, 308, Coy Lawrence168, Cronin T., Cruzado Luis299, Daniel Raychelle309, Davletshin S. G.13, De La Cour Jacqueline L.310, 311, Deline P.312, Dewitte Boris313, 314, 315, Dhurmea R.81, Dickerson C.92, Domingues Ricardo316, Durre Imke1, Eakin C. MarkORCID310, Farmer J.317, Fauchald P.38, Geiger Erick F.310, 311, Gomez Andrea M.310, 318, 319, Gugliemin Mario320, Hansen K.43, Helfrich S.322, Hemming D. L.2, 323, Heron Scott F.310, 324, Heuze C.325, Horstkotte T.326, Hubert DaanORCID327, Hueuze Celine328, Ibrahim M. M.329, Isaac Victor113, Jacobs Stephanie J.202, Jeffries Martin O.330, Karakoylu Erdem M.107, 262, Khan M. S.42, Ladd C.57, Lavado-Casimiro Waldo299, Lee S. -E220, Lee T. C.331, Li Bailing97, 245, Li Tim332, Lopez Luis A.10, Luthcke S.107, Marcellin Vernie333, Marin Dora299, Marsh Benjamin L.310, 324, Martin A334, Martinez Alejandra G.93, Martinez-Sanchez Odalys335, Meijers Andrew J. S.69, Miller Ben14, 70, Moat Ben32, Mochizuki Y.336, Mosquera-Vasquez Kobi93, Mostafa Awatif E.15, Nielsen-Gammon John W.337, Noll Ben E.185, Osborne Emily198, Pastor Saavedra Maria Asuncion338, Paulik Christoph73, Peltier Alexandre339, Pinzon J.107, Po-Chedley S.307, Polashenski C.225, 226, Purkey Sarah G.110, Quispe Nelson299, Rakotoarimalala C.340, Richardson A. D.256, 341, Ricker R36, Rodriguez Camino Ernesto338, Rosner Benjamin245, Roth David Mark342, Rutishauser T.343, Sasgen L.344, Sayad T. A.329, Scanlon T.64, Schenzinger Verena121, Silow Eugene260, Skirving William J.310, 324, Sofieva Viktoria136, Sparks T. H.345, Spillane Sandra346, Stanitski Diane M.14, Stengel M.347, Stephenson Kimberly52, Strong Alan E.310, 311, Sutton Adrienne J.57, Takahashi Kenneth S.299, Thackeray S. J.348, Thomson Lthorsteinsson T.349, Timbal Bertrand350, Timofeyev Maxim A.260, Tirak Kyle, V310, Togawa H.336, Tommervik H.38, Tourpali Kleareti351, Trinanes Joaquin A.278, Tucker C. J.107, Tye Mari R.352, Van Der a Ronald J.74, Velden Christopher S.5, Vickers H.353, Webster M.107, Westberry Toby K.28, Widlansky Matthew J.187, Wood K.56, Yoon Huang354, York A.355, Zhu ZhiweiORCID356, Ziel R.355, Ziese Markus G.26
Affiliation(s) 1 : NOAA, NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
2 : Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
3 : Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinidad Tobago.
4 : Agence Natl Aviat Civile & Meteorol, Moroni, Comoros.
5 : Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
6 : Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD USA.
7 : Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.
8 : Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
9 : Univ Reading, Reading, Berks, England.
10 : Inst Hidrol Meteorol & Estudios Ambientales Colom, Bogota, Colombia.
11 : Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Ciencias Sistema Terrestre, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
12 : Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate, Sect Glaciers Ice & Snow, Oslo, Norway.
13 : Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
14 : NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
15 : Egyptian Meteorol Author, Cairo Numer Weather Predict, Dept Seasonal Forecast & Climate Res, Cairo, Egypt.
16 : Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
17 : Direcc Meteorol & Hidrol DINAC, Asuncion, Paraguay.
18 : Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
19 : Univ Austral Chile, Inst Conservac Biodiversidad & Terr, Valdivia, Chile.
20 : Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, Santiago, Chile.
21 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Geog, Valparaiso, Chile.
22 : NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
23 : Argentine Naval Hydrog Serv, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
24 : NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
25 : Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
26 : Deutsch Wetterdienst, Global Precipitat Climatol Ctr, Offenbach, Germany.
27 : NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
28 : Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR USA.
29 : Seychelles Natl Meteorol Serv, Pointe Larue, Mahe, Seychelles.
30 : European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
31 : Biospher Instruments, San Diego, CA USA.
32 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
33 : Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
34 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
35 : Inst Uruguayo Meteorol, Montevideo, Uruguay.
36 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Potsdam, Germany.
37 : Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Reg Climate Ctr Network, Offenbach, Germany.
38 : Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tromso, Norway.
39 : NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
40 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Global Modeling & Assimilat Off, Greenbelt, MD USA.
41 : CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
42 : Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
43 : Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
44 : WMO Atmospher Environm Res Div, Geneva, Switzerland.
45 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
46 : Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
47 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
48 : Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
49 : Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
50 : Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
51 : Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
52 : Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
53 : Danish Meteorol Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
54 : RSMC La Reunion, Meteo France, La Reunion, France.
55 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England.
56 : Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
57 : NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
58 : Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
59 : Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
60 : Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
61 : Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
62 : Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
63 : Univ Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA.
64 : Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
65 : Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
66 : Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Geography Environm & Earth Sci, Wellington, New Zealand.
67 : CPTEC INPE, Ctr Weather Forecasts & Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil.
68 : German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
69 : British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
70 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
71 : Univ Ottawa, Dept Geography, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
72 : Marine Inst, Newport, Shrops, England.
73 : VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
74 : Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
75 : King Cty Water & Land Resources Div, Seattle, WA USA.
76 : Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
77 : Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
78 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.
79 : Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
80 : NOAA OAR Air Resources Lab, Silver Spring, MD USA.
81 : Mauritius Meteorological Serv, Vacoas, Mauritius.
82 : Earth & Space Res, Seattle, WA USA.
83 : Univ Innsbruck, Res Inst Limnology, Mondsee, Austria.
84 : Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci Earth & Climate Cluster, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
85 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
86 : Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
87 : Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
88 : Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
89 : Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia.
90 : Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
91 : Direction Meteorol Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
92 : Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA USA.
93 : Inst Geofisico Peru, Lima, Peru.
94 : Meteorol Dept St Maarten, St Maarten, Netherlands.
95 : CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
96 : Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
97 : Islamic Republic Iranian Meteorol, Tehran, Iran.
98 : Geolog Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
99 : FCSD ASGC Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Richland, WA USA.
100 : Univ Liege, Liege, Belgium.
101 : Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
102 : Ohio Univ, Dept Geography, Athens, OH USA.
103 : Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
104 : Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.
105 : Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland.
106 : Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Natl Weather Forecast & Climate Res Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria.
107 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
108 : Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
109 : Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
110 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
111 : European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
112 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo, Japan.
113 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
114 : Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
115 : NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Mangilao, GU USA.
116 : Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Hampton, VA USA.
117 : CSIC Univ Cantabria, Inst Fis Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
118 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
119 : York Univ, Earth & Space Sci & Engn, Toronto, ON, Canada.
120 : Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, FCSD ASGC Climate Phys Grp, Richland, WA USA.
121 : Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
122 : Old Dominion Univ, Ctr Coastal Phys Oceanography, Norfolk, VA USA.
123 : Univ Sheffield, Dept Geography, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
124 : Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
125 : NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Sci Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA.
126 : Univ East Anglia, Natl Ctr Atmospheric Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
127 : Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
128 : NOAA NESDIS STAR Univ Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI USA.
129 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr, Asheville, NC USA.
130 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
131 : Climate Ctr, Inst Meteorol, Havana, Cuba.
132 : Inst Nacl Meteorol & Hidrolog Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
133 : Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
134 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
135 : SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
136 : Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
137 : Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Abuja, Nigeria.
138 : European Ctr Medium Range, Reading, Berks, England.
139 : Norwegian Meteorolog Inst, Oslo, Norway.
140 : Japan Meteorolog Agcy, Climat Res Dept, Meteorolog Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
141 : Estellus, Paris, France.
142 : PSL Res Univ, LERMA, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
143 : Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
144 : EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany.
145 : Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
146 : Norwegian Radiat Protect Authority, Osteras, Norway.
147 : NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA.
148 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
149 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
150 : Univ East Anglia, Climat Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
151 : Meteo France, Direct Interreg Ocean Indien, St Denis, Reunion, France.
152 : Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
153 : Max Planck Inst Chem, Mainz, Germany.
154 : California Inst Technol, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
155 : Islamic Republic Iran Meteorolog Org, Tehran, Iran.
156 : Ethiopian Meteorolog Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
157 : Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
158 : Study Environm Arctic Change SEARCH, Fairbanks, AK USA.
159 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
160 : Ctr Blue Economy, Middlebury Inst Int Studies, Monterey, CA USA.
161 : Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Tokyo 1138654, Japan.
162 : Korea Polar Res Inst, Incheon, South Korea.
163 : Colorado State Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, Ft Collins, CO USA.
164 : NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, Ft Collins, CO USA.
165 : Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
166 : Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Freshwater Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
167 : World Data Ctr, All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
168 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
169 : South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
170 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
171 : Hungarian Meteorol Serv, Climatol Div, Budapest, Hungary.
172 : Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res Ctr, Sodankyla, Finland.
173 : Arctic Portal, Akureyri, Iceland.
174 : Univ Guam, Mangilao, GU USA.
175 : Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
176 : Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
177 : Madison Area Tech Coll, Dept Phys Sci, Sch Arts & Sci, Madison, WI USA.
178 : NOAA, NWS NCWCP Lab Satellite Altimetry, College Pk, MD USA.
179 : Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England.
180 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
181 : Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
182 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
183 : NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
184 : Colgate Univ, Dept Geog, Hamilton, NY USA.
185 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
186 : Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
187 : Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
188 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
189 : Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
190 : New Mexico Inst Mining & Technol, Socorro, NM USA.
191 : NorthWest Res Ass, Socorro, NM USA.
192 : Ctr Nacl Monitoramento Alertas Desastres Nat, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.
193 : Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Dept Hydrol & Water Management, Torun, Poland.
194 : Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
195 : Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
196 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
197 : Univ Tasmania, Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
198 : NOAA, OAR Arctic Res Program, Silver Spring, MD USA.
199 : Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
200 : King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Div Biol & Environm Sci & Engn, Water Desalinat & Reuse Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
201 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
202 : Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
203 : CSIRO Land & Water Flagship, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
204 : Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
205 : Australian Res Council, Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
206 : Remote Sensing Syst, Santa Rosa, CA USA.
207 : North Carolina A&T State Univ, Dept Energy & Environm Syst, Greensboro, NC USA.
208 : Botswana Int Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Palapye, Botswana.
209 : Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Phys, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
210 : Univ Reading, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
211 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
212 : Earth Observing Data Ctr GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
213 : Meteorol Serv Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.
214 : CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
215 : Univ Georgia, Dept Geog, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
216 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, SOOS Int Project Off, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
217 : WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res, Davos, Switzerland.
218 : USGS, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK USA.
219 : Natl Agcy Meteorol, Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Hydrol & Environ Monitoring, Ulan Bator, Mongolia.
220 : Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
221 : Natl Meteorol Serv Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
222 : Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
223 : Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France.
224 : Nichols Coll, Dudley, MA USA.
225 : USACE, ERDC, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH USA.
226 : Dartmouth Coll, Thayer Sch Eng, Hanover, NH USA.
227 : Greater Wellington Reg Council, Wellington, New Zealand.
228 : Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
229 : Agencia Estatal Meteorol, Santander, Spain.
230 : Cayman Isl Natl Weather Serv, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.
231 : Direcc Meteorol Chile, Santiago, Chile.
232 : Atmospher Sci & Meteorol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
233 : Minist Earth Sci, Earth System Sci Org, New Delhi, India.
234 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
235 : All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
236 : Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
237 : CAWRC, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
238 : EODC, Vienna, Austria.
239 : Victoria Univ Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
240 : Indian Inst Trop Meteorol, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
241 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA.
242 : Israel Oceanog & Limnol Res, Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnol Lab, Migdal, Israel.
243 : Rutgers State Univ, Dept Geog, Piscataway, NJ 08855 USA.
244 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Hydrol Sci Lab, Greenbelt, MD USA.
245 : Univ Marburg, Fac Geog, Lab Climatol Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
246 : Tyumen State Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
247 : Univ Paris Diderot, Lab LOCEAN IPSL, Paris, France.
248 : Stockholm Univ MISU, Dept Meteorol, Stockholm, Sweden.
249 : NASA Jet Propuls Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
250 : Princeton Univ, Atmospher & Ocean Sci Program, Princeton, NJ USA.
251 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA.
252 : Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
253 : Swiss Federal Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
254 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, Inst Geog Alpine, Grenoble, France.
255 : N Carolina State Univ, Cooperat Inst Climate & Satellites, Asheville, NC USA.
256 : No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosystem Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA.
257 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
258 : Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
259 : George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
260 : Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
261 : Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
262 : Sci Applicat Int Corp, Beltsville, MD USA.
263 : Dept Water Resources, Div Meteorol, Banjul, Gambia.
264 : Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
265 : Nat Resources Canada, Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
266 : Meteorol Serv, Kingston, Jamaica.
267 : Indian Meteorol Dept, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
268 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA.
269 : German Weather Serv DWD, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.
270 : Serv Meteorol Nacl, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
271 : CSIR Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observ, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
272 : NOAA NOS Ctr Operat Oceanog Products & Serv, Silver Spring, MD USA.
273 : Grenada Airports Author, St Georges, Grenada.
274 : NASA Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY USA.
275 : NOAA Natl Weather Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA.
276 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
277 : Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA.
278 : Univ Santiago Compostela, Lab Syst, Technol Res Inst, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
279 : Philipps Univ, Lab Climatol & Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
280 : Caribbean Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Bridgetown, Barbados.
281 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Aerospace Engn Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
282 : Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.
283 : Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
284 : Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
285 : Univ Lisbon, Inst Geog & Ordenamento Territorio, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
286 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Earth Observing Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
287 : Univ Hawaii, SOEST, Dept Meteorol, Honolulu, HI USA.
288 : IPRC, Honolulu, HI USA.
289 : South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
290 : Louisiana State Univ, Dept Geog & Anthropol, Baton Rouge, LA USA.
291 : Univ Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
292 : Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Limnol, Uppsala, Sweden.
293 : NOAA Climate Predict Ctr, INNOVIM, College Pk, MD USA.
294 : St Lucia Meteorol Serv, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
295 : Univ Bristol, Sch Geog Sci, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.
296 : Beijing Climate Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
297 : Cold & Arid Reg Environm & Engn Res Inst, Lanzhou, Gansu, Peoples R China.
298 : Morgan State Univ, Goddard Earth Sci Technol & Res, Baltimore, MD USA.
299 : Serv Nacl Meteorol & Hidrol Peru, Lima, Peru.
300 : Hampton Univ, Dept Atmospher & Planetary Sci, Hampton, VA 23668 USA.
301 : Woodland Trust, Grantham, England.
302 : Inuit Circumpolar Council Alaska, Anchorage, AK USA.
303 : Newcastle Univ, Sch Engn, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England.
304 : Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala, Sweden.
305 : Inst Mar Peru, Callao, Peru.
306 : Univ Washington, Sch Oceanog, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
307 : Lawrence Livermore Natl Lab, Livermore, CA USA.
308 : US Geol Survey, 959 Natl Ctr, Reston, VA 22092 USA.
309 : Pew Charitable Trusts, Washington, DC USA.
310 : NOAA NESDIS Coral Reef Watch, College Pk, MD USA.
311 : Global Sci & Technol Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
312 : Univ Savoie Mont Blanc, EDYTEM Lab, Chambery, France.
313 : Ctr Estudios Avanzado Zonas Aridas, Coquimbo, Chile.
314 : Univ Catolica Norte, Coquimbo, Chile.
315 : Lab Etud Geophys & Oceanog Spatiales, Toulouse, France.
316 : Univ Miami, Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Studies, Miami, FL USA.
317 : Princeton Univ, Dept Geosci, Princeton, NJ 08544 USA.
318 : Ecosyst Sci Lab, New York, NY USA.
319 : NOAA CREST, New York, NY USA.
320 : Insubria Univ, Dept Theoret & Appl Sci, Varese, Italy.
321 : NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Raleigh, NC USA.
322 : NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, College Pk, MD USA.
323 : Univ Birmingham, Birmingham Inst Forest Res, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.
324 : ReefSense Pty Ltd, Townsville, Qld, Australia.
325 : Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
326 : Umea Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Umea, Sweden.
327 : Royal Belgian Inst Space Aeron BIRA, Brussels, Belgium.
328 : Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
329 : Al Azhar Univ, Dept Meteorol, Cairo, Egypt.
330 : Off Naval Res, Arlington, VA USA.
331 : Hong Kong Observ, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
332 : Univ Hawaii, Dept Atmospher Sci, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
333 : Dominica Meteorol Serv, Canefield, Dominica.
334 : Univ Oxford, Dept Zool, Oxford, England.
335 : NOAA NWS San Juan, San Juan, PR USA.
336 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo Climate Ctr, Tokyo, Japan.
337 : Texas A&M Univ, College Stn, TX USA.
338 : Agencia Estatal Meteorol, Madrid, Spain.
339 : Meteo France Nouvelle Caledonie, Noumea, New Caledonia.
340 : Madagascar Meteorol Serv, Antananarivo, Madagascar.
341 : No Arizona Univ, Sch Informat Comp & Cyber Syst, Flagstaff, AZ USA.
342 : NOAA NWS Weather Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
343 : Swiss Acad Arts & Sci, Bern, Switzerland.
344 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Climate Sci Dept, Bremerhaven, Germany.
345 : Coventry Univ, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
346 : Irish Meteorol Serv, Met Eireann, Dublin, Ireland.
347 : Deutsch Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany.
348 : Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Lancaster, England.
349 : Iceland Meteorol Off, Reykjavik, Iceland.
350 : Singapore Meteorol Serv, Singapore, Singapore.
351 : Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
352 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Capac Ctr Climate & Weather Extremes C3WE, POB 3000, Boulder, CO 80307 USA.
353 : Norut Northern Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
354 : Univ Hawaii, Dept Oceanog, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA.
355 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Fire Sci Consortium, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
356 : Nanjing Univ Informat Sci & Technol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
Source Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society (0003-0007) (Amer Meteorological Soc), 2018-08 , Vol. 99 , N. 8 , P. S1-S310
DOI 10.1175/2018BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
WOS© Times Cited 11
Abstract

In 2017, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth’s atmosphere—carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide— reached new record highs. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth’s surface for 2017 was 405.0 ± 0.1 ppm, 2.2 ppm greater than for 2016 and the highest in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800 000 years. The global growth rate of CO2 has nearly quadrupled since the early 1960s. With ENSO-neutral conditions present in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean during most of the year and weak La Niña conditions notable at the start and end, the global temperature across land and ocean surfaces ranked as the second or third highest, depending on the dataset, since records began in the mid-to-late 1800s. Notably, it was the warmest non-El Niño year in the instrumental record. Above Earth’s surface, the annual lower tropospheric temperature was also either second or third highest according to all datasets analyzed. The lower stratospheric temperature was about 0.2°C higher than the record cold temperature of 2016 according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Argentina, Uruguay, Spain, and Bulgaria, reported record high annual temperatures. Mexico broke its annual record for the fourth consecutive year. On 27 January, the temperature reached 43.4°C at Puerto Madryn, Argentina—the highest temperature recorded so far south (43°S) anywhere in the world. On 28 May in Turbat, western Pakistan, the high of 53.5°C tied Pakistan’s all-time highest temperature and became the world-record highest temperature for May. In the Arctic, the 2017 land surface temperature was 1.6°C above the 1981–2010 average, the second highest since the record began in 1900, behind only 2016. The five highest annual Arctic temperatures have all occurred since 2007. Exceptionally high temperatures were observed in the permafrost across the Arctic, with record values reported in much of Alaska and northwestern Canada. In August, high sea surface temperature (SST) records were broken for the Chukchi Sea, with some regions as warm as +11°C, or 3° to 4°C warmer than the longterm mean (1982–present). According to paleoclimate studies, today’s abnormally warm Arctic air and SSTs have not been observed in the last 2000 years. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 7 March, sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, covering 8% less area than the 1981–2010 average. The Arctic sea ice minimum on 13 September was the eighth lowest on record and covered 25% less area than the long-term mean. Preliminary data indicate that glaciers across the world lost mass for the 38th consecutive year on record; the declines are remarkably consistent from region to region. Cumulatively since 1980, this loss is equivalent to slicing 22 meters off the top of the average glacier. Antarctic sea ice extent remained below average for all of 2017, with record lows during the first four months. Over the continent, the austral summer seasonal melt extent and melt index were the second highest since 2005, mostly due to strong positive anomalies of air temperature over most of the West Antarctic coast. In contrast, the East Antarctic Plateau saw record low mean temperatures in March. The year was also distinguished by the second smallest Antarctic ozone hole observed since 1988. Across the global oceans, the overall long-term SST warming trend remained strong. Although SST cooled slightly from 2016 to 2017, the last three years produced the three highest annual values observed; these high anomalies have been associated with widespread coral bleaching. The most recent global coral bleaching lasted three full years, June 2014 to May 2017, and was the longest, most widespread, and almost certainly most destructive such event on record. Global integrals of 0–700- m and 0–2000-m ocean heat content reached record highs in 2017, and global mean sea level during the year became the highest annual average in the 25-year satellite altimetry record, rising to 77 mm above the 1993 average. In the tropics, 2017 saw 85 named tropical storms, slightly above the 1981–2010 average of 82. The North Atlantic basin was the only basin that featured an above-normal season, its seventh most active in the 164-year record. Three hurricanes in the basin were especially notable. Harvey produced record rainfall totals in areas of Texas and Louisiana, including a storm total of 1538.7 mm near Beaumont, Texas, which far exceeds the previous known U.S. tropical cyclone record of 1320.8 mm. Irma was the strongest tropical cyclone globally in 2017 and the strongest Atlantic hurricane outside of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean on record with maximum winds of 295 km h−1. Maria caused catastrophic destruction across the Caribbean Islands, including devastating wind damage and flooding across Puerto Rico. Elsewhere, the western North Pacific, South Indian, and Australian basins were all particularly quiet. Precipitation over global land areas in 2017 was clearly above the long-term average. Among noteworthy regional precipitation records in 2017, Russia reported its second wettest year on record (after 2013) and Norway experienced its sixth wettest year since records began in 1900. Across India, heavy rain and flood-related incidents during the monsoon season claimed around 800 lives. In August and September, above-normal precipitation triggered the most devastating floods in more than a decade in the Venezuelan states of Bolívar and Delta Amacuro. In Nigeria, heavy rain during August and September caused the Niger and Benue Rivers to overflow, bringing floods that displaced more than 100 000 people. Global fire activity was the lowest since at least 2003; however, high activity occurred in parts of North America, South America, and Europe, with an unusually long season in Spain and Portugal, which had their second and third driest years on record, respectively. Devastating fires impacted British Columbia, destroying 1.2 million hectares of timber, bush, and grassland, due in part to the region’s driest summer on record. In the United States, an extreme western wildfire season burned over 4 million hectares; the total costs of $18 billion tripled the previous U.S. annual wildfire cost record set in 1991.

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Arndt D. S., Blunden J., Hartfield G., Ackerman Steven A., Adler Robert, Alfaro Eric J., Allan Richard P., Allan Rob, Alves Lincoln M., Amador Jorge A., Andreassen L. M., Argueez Anthony, Arndt Derek S., Azorin-Molina Cesar, Baez Julian, Bardin M. U., Barichivich Jonathan, Baringer Molly O., Barreira Sandra, Baxter Stephen, Beck H. E., Becker Andreas, Bedka Kristopher M., Bell Gerald D., Belmont M., Benedetti Angela, Berrisford Paul, Berry David I., Bhatt U. S., Bissolli Peter, Bjerke J., Blake Eric S., Bosilovich Michael G., Boucher Olivier, Box J. E., Boyer Tim, Braathen Geir O., Bromwich David H., Brown R., Buehler S., Bulygina Olga N., Burgess D., Calderon Blanca, Camargo Suzana J., Campbell Jayaka D., Cappelen J., Carrea Laura, Carter Brendan R., Chambers Don P., Cheng Ming-Dean, Christiansen Hanne H., Christy John R., Chung E. -S., Clem Kyle R., Coelho Caio A. 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