State of the Climate in 2016

Type Article
Date 2017-08
Language English
Author(s) Arndt D. S.1, Blunden J.1, Dunn R. J. H.2, Aaron-Morrison Arlene P.3, Abdallah A.4, Ackerman Steven A.5, Adler Robert6, Alfaro Eric J.7, 8, Allan Richard P.9, Allan Rob2, Alvarez Luis A.10, Alves Lincoln M.11, Amador Jorge A.7, 8, Andreassen L. M.12, Arce Dayana7, 8, Argueez Anthony1, Arndt Derek S.1, Arzhanova N. M.13, Augustine John14, Awatif E. M.15, Azorin-Molina Cesar16, Baez Julian17, Bardin M. U.18, Barichivich JonathanORCID19, 20, 21, Baringer Molly O.22, Barreira Sandra23, Baxter Stephen24, Beck H. E.25, Becker Andreas26, Bedka Kristopher M.27, Behrenfeld Michael J.28, Bell Gerald D.24, Belmont M.29, Benedetti Angela30, Bernhard G. H.31, Berrisford Paul30, Berry David I.32, Bettolli Maria L.33, Bhatt U. S.34, Bidegain Mario35, Biskaborn B.36, Bissolli Peter37, Bjerke J.38, Blake Eric S.39, Blunden Jessica, Bosilovich Michael G.40, Boucher OlivierORCID41, Boudet Dagne42, Box J. E.43, Boyer Tim1, Braathen Geir O.44, Brimelow Julian45, Bromwich David H.46, Brown R.47, Buehler S.48, Bulygina Olga N.49, Burgess D.50, Calderon Blanca7, Camargo Suzana J.ORCID51, Campbell Jayaka D.52, Cappelen J.53, Caroff P.54, Carrea Laura55, Carter Brendan R.56, 57, Chambers Don P.58, Chandler Elise59, Cheng Ming-Dean60, 61, Christiansen Hanne H.62, Christy John R.63, Chung Daniel64, Chung E. -S.65, Clem Kyle R.66, Coelho Caio A. S.67, Coldewey-Egbers Melanie68, Colwell Steve69, Cooper Owen R.14, 70, Copland L.71, Cross J. N.57, Crouch Jake1, Cutie Virgen42, Davis Sean M.70, de Eyto Elvira72, de Jeu Richard A. M.73, de Laat Jos74, Degasperi Curtis L.75, Degenstein Doug76, Demircan M.77, Derksen C.78, Di Girolamo Larry79, Diamond Howard J.80, Dindyal S.81, Dlugokencky Ed J.14, Dohan Kathleen82, Dokulil Martin T.83, Dolman A. Johannes84, Domingues Catia M.ORCID85, 86, Donat Markus G.87, Dong ShenfuORCID88, Dorigo Wouter A.64, Drozdov D. S.89, 90, Dunn Robert J. H., Duran-Quesada Ana M.7, 8, Dutton Geoff S.70, Elkharrim M.91, Elkins James W., Epstein H. E.92, Espinoza Jhan C.93, Etienne-Leblanc Sheryl94, Famiglietti James S.95, Farrell S.96, Fateh S.97, Fausto R. S.98, Feely Richard A., Feng Z.99, Fenimore Chris, Fettweis X.100, Fioletov Vitali E., Flannigan Mike101, Flemming Johannes30, Fogt Ryan L.102, Folland Chris2, 103, 104, Fonseca C.42, Forbes B. C.105, Foster Michael J.5, Francis S. D.106, Franz Bryan A.107, Frey Richard A.5, Frith Stacey M.107, 108, Froidevaux Lucien95, Ganter Catherine59, Gerland S.109, Gilson John110, Gobron Nadine111, Goldenberg Stanley B., Goni Gustavo, Gonzalez Idelmis T.42, Goto A.112, Greenhough Marianna D.45, Grooss J. -U.114, Gruber AlexanderORCID, Guard Charles115, Gupta S. K.116, Gutierrez J. M.117, Haas C.118, 119, Hagos S.120, Hahn Sebastian, Haimberger Leo121, Hall Brad D., Halpert Michael S., Hamlington Benjamin D.122, Hanna E.123, Hanssen-Bauer I124, Hare Jon125, Harris Ian126, 127, Heidinger Andrew K.128, Heim Richard R., Jr.129, Hendricks S.130, Hernandez Marieta131, Hernandez Rafael132, Hidalgo Hugo G.ORCID, Ho Shu-Peng133, Hobbs William R.134, Huang Boyin, Huelsing Hannah K.135, Hurst Dale F., Ialongo I.136, Ijampy J. A.137, Inness Antje138, Isaksen K.139, Ishii Masayoshi140, Jevrejeva Svetlana, Jimenez C.141, 142, Jin Xiangze 143, John Viju2, 144, Johns William E.145, Johnsen B.146, Johnson Bryan147, 148, Johnson Gregory C., Johnson Kenneth S.149, Jones Philip D.150, Jumaux Guillaume151, Kabidi Khadija152, Kaiser J. W.153, Kass David154, Kato Seiji, Kazemi A.155, Kelem G.156, Keller Linda M.157, Kelly B. P.158, 159, 160, Kendon Mike2, Kennedy John, Kerr Kenneth3, Kholodov A. L.34, Khoshkam Mahbobeh18, Killick Rachel2, Kim Hyungjun161, Kim S. -J.162, Kimberlain Todd B.39, Klotzbach Philip J.163, Knaff John A.ORCID164, Kochtubajda Bob45, Kohler J.165, Korhonen Johanna166, Korshunova Natalia N.167, Kramarova Natalya168, Kratz D. P.27, Kruger Andries169, Kruk Michael C.170, Krumpen T.118, Lakatos M.171, Lakkala K.172, Lanckmann J. -P.173, Lander Mark A.174, Landschuetzer Peter175, Landsea Chris W.39, Lankhorst Matthias110, Lantz Kathleen14, 70, Lazzara Matthew A.176, 177, Leuliette Eric178, Lewis Stephen R.179, L'Heureux Michelle24, Lieser Jan L.180, Lin I-IORCID60, Liu Hongxing181, Liu Yinghui5, Locarnini Ricardo182, Loeb Norman G.27, Long Craig S.183, Loranty M.184, Lorrey Andrew M.185, Loyola Diego68, Lu Mong-Ming60, 61, Lumpkin RickORCID22, Luo Jing-JiaORCID186, Luojus K.136, Lyman John M.57, 187, Macara Gregor188, Macdonald Alison M.143, Macias-Fauria M.189, Malkova G. V.89, 90, Manney G.190, 191, Marchenko S. S.34, Marengo Jose A.192, Marra John J.1, Marszelewski Wlodzimierz193, Martens B.194, Martinez-Gueingla Rodney195, Massom Robert A.196, 197, Mathis Jeremy T.198, May Linda199, Mayer Michael121, Mazloff MatthewORCID110, McBride Charlotte169, McCabe M. F.200, McCarthy Gerard201, McCarthy M.2, McDonagh Elaine L., McGree Simon202, McVicar Tim R.203, 204, 205, Mears Carl A.206, Meier W.107, Mekonnen A.207, Menezes V. V.143, Mengistu Tsidu G.208, 209, Menzel W. PaulORCID176, Merchant Christopher J., Meredith Michael P.69, Merrifield Mark A.187, Minnis PatrickORCID27, Miralles Diego G.194, Mistelbauer T.212, Mitchum Gary T.58, Mitro Srkani213, Monselesan Didier214, Montzka Stephen A.14, Mora Natalie7, 8, Morice Colin2, Morrow Blair45, Mote T.215, Mudryk L.47, Muehle Jens110, Mullan A. Brett185, Mueller R.114, Nash Eric R.168, Nerem R. Steven70, Newman LouiseORCID216, Newman Paul A.107, Nieto Juan Jose195, Noetzli Jeannette217, O'Neel S.218, Osborn Tim J.127, Overland J.57, Oyunjargal Lamjav219, Parinussa Robert M.73, Park E-Hyung220, Pasch Richard J.39, Pascual-Ramirez Reynaldo221, Paterson Andrew M.222, Pearce Petra R.185, Pellichero Violaine223, Pelto Mauri S.224, Peng Liang133, Perkins-Kirkpatrick Sarah E.87, Perovich D.225, 226, Petropavlovskikh Irina147, 148, Pezza Alexandre B.227, Phillips C.157, Phillips David45, Phoenix G.228, Pinty Bernard111, Pitts Michael C.27, Pons M. R.229, Porter Avalon O.230, Quintana Juan231, Rahimzadeh Fatemeh232, Rajeevan Madhavan233, Rayner Darren201, Raynolds M. K.234, Razuvaev Vyacheslav N.235, Read Peter236, Reagan JamesORCID96, 182, Reid Phillip186, 237, Reimer Christoph64, 238, Remy Samuel41, Renwick James A.239, Revadekar Jayashree V.240, Richter-Menge J.241, Rimmer Alon242, Robinson David A.243, Rodell MatthewORCID244, Rollenbeck Ruetger245, Romanovsky Vladimir E.34, 246, Ronchail Josyane247, Roquet F.248, Rosenlof Karen H.14, Roth Chris76, Rusak James A.222, Sallee Jean-Bapiste69, 223, Sanchez-Lugo Ahira182, Santee Michelle L.249, Sarmiento Jorge L.250, Sawaengphokhai P.108, Sayouri Amal152, Scambos Ted A.251, Schemm Jae24, Schladow S. Geoffrey252, Schmid ClaudiaORCID22, Schmid MartinORCID253, Schoeneich P.254, Schreck Carl J., Iii255, Schuur Ted256, Selkirk H. B.257, Send Uwe110, Sensoy Serhat77, Sharp M.258, Shi Lei182, Shiklomanov Nikolai I.259, Shimaraeva Svetlana V.260, Siegel David A.261, Signorini Sergio R.262, Silov Eugene260, Sima Fatou263, Simmons Adrian J.30, Smeed David A.32, Smeets C. J. P. P.264, Smith Adam182, Smith Sharon L.265, Soden B.65, Spence Jaqueline M.266, Srivastava A. K.267, Stackhouse Paul W., Jr.27, Stammerjohn Sharon268, Steinbrecht WolfgangORCID269, Stella Jose L.270, Stennett-Brown Roxann52, Stephenson Tannecia S.52, Strahan Susan257, Streletskiy Dimitri A.259, Sun-Mack Sunny108, Swart Sebastiaan271, Sweet William272, Tamar Gerard273, Taylor Michael A.52, Tedesco M.51, 274, Thoman R. L.275, Thompson L.276, Thompson Philip R.187, Timmermans M. -L.277, Timofeev Maxim A.260, Tirnanes Joaquin A.278, Tobin Skie59, Trachte Katja279, Trewin Blair C.186, Trotman Adrian R.280, Tschudi M.281, Tweedy Olga282, Van As D.43, Van De Wal R. S. W.264, Van Der Schalie Robin73, Van Der Schrier Gerard74, Van Der Werf Guido R.283, Van Meerbeeck Cedric J.280, Velicogna I.284, Verburg Piet188, Vieira G.285, Vincent Lucie A.113, Voemel Holger286, Vose Russell S.182, Wagner WolfgangORCID64, Wahlin AnnaORCID16, Walker D. A.234, Walsh J.159, Wang Bin287, 288, Wang Chunzai289, Wang Junhong135, Wang Lei290, Wang M.56, Wang Sheng-Hung46, Wanninkhof Rik22, Watanabe Shohei252, Weber Mark291, Weller Robert A.143, Weyhenmeyer Gesa A.ORCID, Whitewood Robert113, Wiese David N.95, Wijffels Susan E.214, Wilber Anne C.108, Wild Jeanette D.293, Willett Kate M.2, Willie Shem294, Willis Josh K.95, Wolken G.159, Wong Takmeng27, Wood E. F.25, Woolway R. Iestyn211, Wouters B.295, Xue Yan183, Yim So-Young220, Yin Xungang170, Yu Lisan143, Zambrano Eduardo195, Zhang Huai-Min1, Zhang Peiqun296, Zhao Guanguo79, Zhao LinORCID297, Ziemke Jerry R.107, 298, Zilberman Nathalie110
Affiliation(s) 1 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Asheville, NC 28801 USA.
2 : Met Off Hadley Ctr, Exeter, Devon, England.
3 : Trinidad & Tobago Meteorol Serv, Piarco, Trinidad Tobago.
4 : Agence Natl Aviat Civile & Meteorol, Moroni, Comoros.
5 : Univ Wisconsin, CIMSS, Madison, WI USA.
6 : Univ Maryland, College Pk, MD USA.
7 : Univ Costa Rica, Ctr Geophys Res, San Jose, Costa Rica.
8 : Univ Costa Rica, Sch Phys, San Jose, Costa Rica.
9 : Univ Reading, Reading, Berks, England.
10 : Inst Hidrol Meteorol & Estudios Ambientales Colom, Bogota, Colombia.
11 : Inst Nacl Pesquisas Espaciais, Ctr Ciencias Sistema Terrestre, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
12 : Norwegian Water Resources & Energy Directorate, Sect Glaciers Ice & Snow, Oslo, Norway.
13 : Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
14 : NOAA OAR Earth Syst Res Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
15 : Egyptian Meteorol Author, Cairo Numer Weather Predict, Dept Seasonal Forecast & Climate Res, Cairo, Egypt.
16 : Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Reg Climate Grp, Gothenburg, Sweden.
17 : Direcc Meteorol & Hidrol DINAC, Asuncion, Paraguay.
18 : Islamic Republ Iran Meteorol Org, Tehran, Iran.
19 : Univ Austral Chile, Inst Conservac Biodiversidad & Terr, Valdivia, Chile.
20 : Ctr Climate & Resilience Res, Santiago, Chile.
21 : Pontificia Univ Catolica Valparaiso, Inst Geog, Valparaiso, Chile.
22 : NOAA OAR Atlantic Oceanog & Meteorol Lab, Miami, FL 33149 USA.
23 : Argentine Naval Hydrog Serv, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
24 : NOAA NWS Climate Predict Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
25 : Princeton Univ, Dept Civil & Environm Engn, Princeton, NJ 08536 USA.
26 : Deutsch Wetterdienst, Global Precipitat Climatol Ctr, Offenbach, Germany.
27 : NASA Langley Res Ctr, Hampton, VA USA.
28 : Oregon State Univ, Corvallis, OR USA.
29 : Seychelles Natl Meteorol Serv, Pointe Larue, Mahe, Seychelles.
30 : European Ctr Medium Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, Berks, England.
31 : Biospher Instruments, San Diego, CA USA.
32 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
33 : Univ Buenos Aires, Fac Ciencias Exactas & Nat, Dept Ciencias Atmosfera & Oceanos, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
34 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Geophys Inst, Fairbanks, AK USA.
35 : Inst Uruguayo Meteorol, Montevideo, Uruguay.
36 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Helmholtz Ctr Polar & Marine Res, Potsdam, Germany.
37 : Deutscher Wetterdienst, WMO RA VI Reg Climate Ctr Network, Offenbach, Germany.
38 : Norwegian Inst Nat Res, Tromso, Norway.
39 : NOAA NWS Natl Hurricane Ctr, Miami, FL USA.
40 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Global Modeling & Assimilat Off, Greenbelt, MD USA.
41 : CNRS UPMC, Inst Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris, France.
42 : Inst Meteorol Cuba, Climate Ctr, Havana, Cuba.
43 : Geol Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
44 : WMO Atmospher Environm Res Div, Geneva, Switzerland.
45 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
46 : Ohio State Univ, Byrd Polar & Climate Res Ctr, Columbus, OH USA.
47 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
48 : Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
49 : Russian Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
50 : Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
51 : Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, Palisades, NY USA.
52 : Univ West Indies, Dept Phys, Kingston, Jamaica.
53 : Danish Meteorol Inst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
54 : RSMC La Reunion, Meteo France, La Reunion, France.
55 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading, Berks, England.
56 : Univ Washington, Joint Inst Study Atmosphere & Ocean, Seattle, WA USA.
57 : NOAA OAR Pacific Marine Environm Lab, Seattle, WA USA.
58 : Univ S Florida, Coll Marine Sci, St Petersburg, FL USA.
59 : Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
60 : Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan.
61 : Cent Weather Bur, Taipei, Taiwan.
62 : Univ Ctr Svalbard, Dept Geol, Longyearbyen, Norway.
63 : Univ Alabama Huntsville, Huntsville, AL USA.
64 : Vienna Univ Technol, Dept Geodesy & Geoinformat, Vienna, Austria.
65 : Univ Miami, Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
66 : Victoria Univ Wellington, Sch Geography Environm & Earth Sci, Wellington, New Zealand.
67 : CPTEC INPE, Ctr Weather Forecasts & Climate Studies, Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil.
68 : German Aerosp Ctr DLR Oberpfaffenhofen, Wessling, Germany.
69 : British Antarctic Survey, Cambridge, England.
70 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Cooperat Inst Res Environm Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
71 : Univ Ottawa, Dept Geography, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
72 : Marine Inst, Newport, Shrops, England.
73 : VanderSat BV, Haarlem, Netherlands.
74 : Royal Netherlands Meteorol Inst KNMI, De Bilt, Netherlands.
75 : King Cty Water & Land Resources Div, Seattle, WA USA.
76 : Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
77 : Turkish State Meteorol Serv, Ankara, Turkey.
78 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Climate Res Div, Toronto, ON, Canada.
79 : Univ Illinois, Urbana, IL USA.
80 : NOAA OAR Air Resources Lab, Silver Spring, MD USA.
81 : Mauritius Meteorological Serv, Vacoas, Mauritius.
82 : Earth & Space Res, Seattle, WA USA.
83 : Univ Innsbruck, Res Inst Limnology, Mondsee, Austria.
84 : Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Earth Sci Earth & Climate Cluster, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
85 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
86 : Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
87 : Univ New S Wales, Climate Change Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
88 : Cooperat Inst Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
89 : Earth Cryosphere Inst, Tumen, Russia.
90 : Tyumen State Oil & Gas Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
91 : Direction Meteorol Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
92 : Univ Virginia, Dept Environm Sci, Charlottesville, VA USA.
93 : Inst Geofisico Peru, Lima, Peru.
94 : Meteorol Dept St Maarten, St Maarten, Netherlands.
95 : CALTECH, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
96 : Univ Maryland, Earth Syst Sci Interdiscipl Ctr, College Pk, MD USA.
97 : Islamic Republic Iranian Meteorol, Tehran, Iran.
98 : Geolog Survey Denmark & Greenland, Copenhagen, Denmark.
99 : FCSD ASGC Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, Richland, WA USA.
100 : Univ Liege, Liege, Belgium.
101 : Univ Alberta, Dept Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
102 : Ohio Univ, Dept Geography, Athens, OH USA.
103 : Univ East Anglia, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
104 : Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.
105 : Univ Lapland, Arctic Ctr, Rovaniemi, Finland.
106 : Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Natl Weather Forecast & Climate Res Ctr, Abuja, Nigeria.
107 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD USA.
108 : Sci Syst & Appl Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
109 : Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Fram Ctr, Tromso, Norway.
110 : Univ Calif San Diego, Scripps Inst Oceanog, La Jolla, CA USA.
111 : European Commiss, Joint Res Ctr, Ispra, Italy.
112 : Japan Meteorol Agcy, Tokyo, Japan.
113 : Environm & Climate Change Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada.
114 : Forschungszentrum Julich, Julich, Germany.
115 : NOAA NWS Weather Forecast Off, Mangilao, GU USA.
116 : Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Hampton, VA USA.
117 : CSIC Univ Cantabria, Inst Fis Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
118 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
119 : York Univ, Earth & Space Sci & Engn, Toronto, ON, Canada.
120 : Pacific Northwest Natl Lab, FCSD ASGC Climate Phys Grp, Richland, WA USA.
121 : Univ Vienna, Dept Meteorol & Geophys, Vienna, Austria.
122 : Old Dominion Univ, Ctr Coastal Phys Oceanography, Norfolk, VA USA.
123 : Univ Sheffield, Dept Geography, Sheffield, S Yorkshire, England.
124 : Norwegian Meteorol Inst, Blindern, Oslo, Norway.
125 : NOAA NMFS Northeast Fisheries Sci Ctr, Woods Hole, MA USA.
126 : Univ East Anglia, Natl Ctr Atmospheric Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
127 : Univ East Anglia, Climatic Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, NY USA.
128 : NOAA NESDIS STAR Univ Wisconsin Madison, Madison, WI USA.
129 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr, Asheville, NC USA.
130 : Alfred Wegener Inst, Bremerhaven, Germany.
131 : Climate Ctr, Inst Meteorol, Havana, Cuba.
132 : Inst Nacl Meteorol & Hidrolog Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela.
133 : Univ Corp Atmospheric Res, COSMIC Project Off, Boulder, CO USA.
134 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
135 : SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
136 : Finnish Meteorolog Inst, Helsinki, Finland.
137 : Nigerian Meteorol Agcy, Abuja, Nigeria.
138 : European Ctr Medium Range, Reading, Berks, England.
139 : Norwegian Meteorolog Inst, Oslo, Norway.
140 : Japan Meteorolog Agcy, Climat Res Dept, Meteorolog Res Inst, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.
141 : Estellus, Paris, France.
142 : PSL Res Univ, LERMA, Observatoire Paris, Paris, France.
143 : Woods Hole Oceanog Inst, Woods Hole, MA USA.
144 : EUMETSAT, Darmstadt, Germany.
145 : Rosenstiel Sch Marine & Atmospher Sci, Miami, FL USA.
146 : Norwegian Radiat Protect Authority, Osteras, Norway.
147 : NOAA OAR Earth System Res Lab, Global Monitoring Div, Boulder, CO USA.
148 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO USA.
149 : Monterey Bay Aquarium Res Inst, Moss Landing, CA USA.
150 : Univ East Anglia, Climat Res Unit, Sch Environm Sci, Norwich, Norfolk, England.
151 : Meteo France, Direct Interreg Ocean Indien, St Denis, Reunion, France.
152 : Direct Meteorolog Natl Maroc, Rabat, Morocco.
153 : Max Planck Inst Chem, Mainz, Germany.
154 : California Inst Technol, Jet Propulsion Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
155 : Islamic Republic Iran Meteorolog Org, Tehran, Iran.
156 : Ethiopian Meteorolog Agcy, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
157 : Univ Wisconsin Madison, Dept Atmospheric & Oceanic Sci, Madison, WI USA.
158 : Study Environm Arctic Change SEARCH, Fairbanks, AK USA.
159 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Int Arctic Res Ctr, Fairbanks, AK USA.
160 : Ctr Blue Economy, Middlebury Inst Int Studies, Monterey, CA USA.
161 : Univ Tokyo, Inst Ind Sci, Tokyo 1138654, Japan.
162 : Korea Polar Res Inst, Incheon, South Korea.
163 : Colorado State Univ, Dept Atmospher Sci, Ft Collins, CO USA.
164 : NOAA NESDIS Ctr Satellite Applicat & Res, Ft Collins, CO USA.
165 : Norwegian Polar Res Inst, Tromso, Norway.
166 : Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Freshwater Ctr, Helsinki, Finland.
167 : World Data Ctr, All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
168 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Sci Syst & Applicat Inc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
169 : South African Weather Serv, Pretoria, South Africa.
170 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Environm Informat, ERT Inc, Asheville, NC USA.
171 : Hungarian Meteorol Serv, Climatol Div, Budapest, Hungary.
172 : Finnish Meteorol Inst, Arctic Res Ctr, Sodankyla, Finland.
173 : Arctic Portal, Akureyri, Iceland.
174 : Univ Guam, Mangilao, GU USA.
175 : Max Planck Inst Meteorol, Hamburg, Germany.
176 : Univ Wisconsin, Space Sci & Engn Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.
177 : Madison Area Tech Coll, Dept Phys Sci, Sch Arts & Sci, Madison, WI USA.
178 : NOAA, NWS NCWCP Lab Satellite Altimetry, College Pk, MD USA.
179 : Open Univ, Sch Phys Sci, Fac Sci Technol Engn & Math, Milton Keynes, Bucks, England.
180 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosyst Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
181 : Univ Cincinnati, Dept Geog, Cincinnati, OH 45221 USA.
182 : NOAA NESDIS Natl Ctr Environm Informat, Silver Spring, MD USA.
183 : NOAA NWS Natl Ctr Environm Predict, College Pk, MD USA.
184 : Colgate Univ, Dept Geog, Hamilton, NY USA.
185 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand.
186 : Australian Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
187 : Univ Hawaii, Joint Inst Marine & Atmospher Res, Honolulu, HI USA.
188 : Natl Inst Water & Atmospher Res, Wellington, New Zealand.
189 : Univ Oxford, Sch Geog & Environm, Oxford, England.
190 : New Mexico Inst Mining & Technol, Socorro, NM USA.
191 : NorthWest Res Ass, Socorro, NM USA.
192 : Ctr Nacl Monitoramento Alertas Desastres Nat, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.
193 : Nicolaus Copernicus Univ, Dept Hydrol & Water Management, Torun, Poland.
194 : Univ Ghent, Lab Hydrol & Water Management, Ghent, Belgium.
195 : Ctr Int Invest Fenomeno El Nino, Guayaquil, Ecuador.
196 : Univ Tasmania, Antarctic Climate & Ecosystems Cooperat Res Ctr, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
197 : Univ Tasmania, Australian Antarctic Div, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
198 : NOAA, OAR Arctic Res Program, Silver Spring, MD USA.
199 : Ctr Ecol & Hydrol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
200 : King Abdullah Univ Sci & Technol, Div Biol & Environm Sci & Engn, Water Desalinat & Reuse Ctr, Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.
201 : Natl Oceanog Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.
202 : Bur Meteorol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
203 : CSIRO Land & Water Flagship, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
204 : Australian Capital Territory, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
205 : Australian Res Council, Ctr Excellence Climate Syst Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
206 : Remote Sensing Syst, Santa Rosa, CA USA.
207 : North Carolina A&T State Univ, Dept Energy & Environm Syst, Greensboro, NC USA.
208 : Botswana Int Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Earth & Environm Sci, Palapye, Botswana.
209 : Addis Ababa Univ, Dept Phys, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
210 : Univ Reading, Natl Ctr Earth Observat, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
211 : Univ Reading, Dept Meteorol, Reading RG6 2AH, Berks, England.
212 : Earth Observing Data Ctr GmbH, Vienna, Austria.
213 : Meteorol Serv Suriname, Paramaribo, Suriname.
214 : CSIRO Oceans & Atmos, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
215 : Univ Georgia, Dept Geog, Athens, GA 30602 USA.
216 : Univ Tasmania, Inst Marine & Antarctic Studies, SOOS Int Project Off, Hobart, Tas 7001, Australia.
217 : WSL Inst Snow & Avalanche Res, Davos, Switzerland.
218 : USGS, Alaska Sci Ctr, Anchorage, AK USA.
219 : Natl Agcy Meteorol, Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Hydrol & Environ Monitoring, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
220 : Korea Meteorol Adm, Seoul, South Korea.
221 : Natl Meteorol Serv Mexico, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
222 : Ontario Ministry Environ & Climate Change, Dorset Environ Sci Ctr, Dorset, ON, Canada.
223 : Sorbonne Univ, LOCEAN IPSL, CNRS IRD MNHN, Paris, France.
224 : Nichols Coll, Dudley, MA USA.
225 : USACE, ERDC, Cold Reg Res & Engn Lab, Hanover, NH USA.
226 : Dartmouth Coll, Thayer Sch Eng, Hanover, NH USA.
227 : Greater Wellington Reg Council, Wellington, New Zealand.
228 : Univ Sheffield, Dept Anim & Plant Sci, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England.
229 : Agencia Estatal Meteorol, Santander, Spain.
230 : Cayman Isl Natl Weather Serv, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands.
231 : Direcc Meteorol Chile, Santiago, Chile.
232 : Atmospher Sci & Meteorol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
233 : Minist Earth Sci, Earth System Sci Org, New Delhi, India.
234 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Inst Arct Biol, Fairbanks, AK 99701 USA.
235 : All Russian Res Inst Hydrometeorol Informat, Obninsk, Russia.
236 : Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 2JD, England.
237 : CAWRC, Hobart, Tas, Australia.
238 : EODC, Vienna, Austria.
239 : Victoria Univ Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand.
240 : Indian Inst Trop Meteorol, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
241 : Univ Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK USA.
242 : Israel Oceanog & Limnol Res, Yigal Allon Kinneret Limnol Lab, Migdal, Israel.
243 : Rutgers State Univ, Dept Geog, Piscataway, NJ 08855 USA.
244 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Hydrol Sci Lab, Greenbelt, MD USA.
245 : Univ Marburg, Fac Geog, Lab Climatol Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
246 : Tyumen State Univ, Tyumen, Russia.
247 : Univ Paris Diderot, Lab LOCEAN IPSL, Paris, France.
248 : Stockholm Univ MISU, Dept Meteorol, Stockholm, Sweden.
249 : NASA Jet Propuls Lab, Pasadena, CA USA.
250 : Princeton Univ, Atmospher & Ocean Sci Program, Princeton, NJ USA.
251 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Natl Snow & Ice Data Ctr, Boulder, CO USA.
252 : Univ Calif Davis, Tahoe Environm Res Ctr, Davis, CA USA.
253 : Swiss Federal Inst Aquat Sci & Technol, Eawag, Kastanienbaum, Switzerland.
254 : Univ Grenoble Alpes, Inst Geog Alpine, Grenoble, France.
255 : N Carolina State Univ, Cooperat Inst Climate & Satellites, Asheville, NC USA.
256 : No Arizona Univ, Ctr Ecosystem Sci & Soc, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 USA.
257 : NASA Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Univ Space Res Assoc, Greenbelt, MD USA.
258 : Univ Alberta, Dept Earth & Atmospher Sci, Edmonton, AB, Canada.
259 : George Washington Univ, Dept Geog, Washington, DC 20052 USA.
260 : Irkutsk State Univ, Inst Biol, Irkutsk 664003, Russia.
261 : Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA USA.
262 : Sci Applicat Int Corp, Beltsville, MD USA.
263 : Dept Water Resources, Div Meteorol, Banjul, Gambia.
264 : Univ Utrecht, Inst Marine & Atmospher Res Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
265 : Nat Resources Canada, Geol Survey Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.
266 : Meteorol Serv, Kingston, Jamaica.
267 : Indian Meteorol Dept, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
268 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Inst Arctic & Alpine Res, Boulder, CO USA.
269 : German Weather Serv DWD, Hohenpeissenberg, Germany.
270 : Serv Meteorol Nacl, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
271 : CSIR Southern Ocean Carbon & Climate Observ, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
272 : NOAA NOS Ctr Operat Oceanog Products & Serv, Silver Spring, MD USA.
273 : Grenada Airports Author, St Georges, Grenada.
274 : NASA Goddard Inst Space Studies, New York, NY USA.
275 : NOAA Natl Weather Serv, Fairbanks, AK USA.
276 : Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
277 : Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA.
278 : Univ Santiago Compostela, Lab Syst, Technol Res Inst, Santiago De Compostela, Spain.
279 : Philipps Univ, Lab Climatol & Remote Sensing, Marburg, Germany.
280 : Caribbean Inst Meteorol & Hydrol, Bridgetown, Barbados.
281 : Univ Colorado Boulder, Aerospace Engn Sci, Boulder, CO USA.
282 : Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.
283 : Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Fac Earth & Life Sci, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
284 : Univ Calif Irvine, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
285 : Univ Lisbon, Inst Geog & Ordenamento Territorio, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal.
286 : Natl Ctr Atmospher Res, Earth Observing Lab, Boulder, CO USA.
287 : Univ Hawaii, SOEST, Dept Meteorol, Honolulu, HI USA.
288 : IPRC, Honolulu, HI USA.
289 : South China Sea Inst Oceanol, State Key Lab Trop Oceanog, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China.
290 : Louisiana State Univ, Dept Geog & Anthropol, Baton Rouge, LA USA.
291 : Univ Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
292 : Uppsala Univ, Dept Ecol & Genet Limnol, Uppsala, Sweden.
293 : NOAA Climate Predict Ctr, INNOVIM, College Pk, MD USA.
294 : St Lucia Meteorol Serv, St Lucia, Qld, Australia.
295 : Univ Bristol, Sch Geog Sci, Bristol BS8 1TH, Avon, England.
296 : Beijing Climate Ctr, Beijing, Peoples R China.
297 : Cold & Arid Reg Environm & Engn Res Inst, Lanzhou, Gansu, Peoples R China.
298 : Morgan State Univ, Goddard Earth Sci Technol & Res, Baltimore, MD USA.
Source Bulletin Of The American Meteorological Society (0003-0007) (Amer Meteorological Soc), 2017-08 , Vol. 98 , N. 8 , P. S1-S277
DOI 10.1175/2017BAMSStateoftheClimate.1
WOS© Times Cited 69
Abstract

In 2016, the dominant greenhouse gases released into Earth's atmosphere-carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide-continued to increase and reach new record highs. The 3.5 +/- 0.1 ppm rise in global annual mean carbon dioxide from 2015 to 2016 was the largest annual increase observed in the 58-year measurement record. The annual global average carbon dioxide concentration at Earth's surface surpassed 400 ppm (402.9 +/- 0.1 ppm) for the first time in the modern atmospheric measurement record and in ice core records dating back as far as 800000 years. One of the strongest El Nino events since at least 1950 dissipated in spring, and a weak La Nina evolved later in the year. Owing at least in part to the combination of El Nino conditions early in the year and a long-term upward trend, Earth's surface observed record warmth for a third consecutive year, albeit by a much slimmer margin than by which that record was set in 2015. Above Earth's surface, the annual lower troposphere temperature was record high according to all datasets analyzed, while the lower stratospheric temperature was record low according to most of the in situ and satellite datasets. Several countries, including Mexico and India, reported record high annual temperatures while many others observed near-record highs. A week-long heat wave at the end of April over the northern and eastern Indian peninsula, with temperatures surpassing 44 degrees C, contributed to a water crisis for 330 million people and to 300 fatalities. In the Arctic the 2016 land surface temperature was 2.0 degrees C above the 1981-2010 average, breaking the previous record of 2007, 2011, and 2015 by 0.8 degrees C, representing a 3.5 degrees C increase since the record began in 1900. The increasing temperatures have led to decreasing Arctic sea ice extent and thickness. On 24 March, the sea ice extent at the end of the growth season saw its lowest maximum in the 37-year satellite record, tying with 2015 at 7.2% below the 1981-2010 average. The September 2016 Arctic sea ice minimum extent tied with 2007 for the second lowest value on record, 33% lower than the 1981-2010 average. Arctic sea ice cover remains relatively young and thin, making it vulnerable to continued extensive melt. The mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet, which has the capacity to contribute similar to 7 m to sea level rise, reached a record low value. The onset of its surface melt was the second earliest, after 2012, in the 37-year satellite record. Sea surface temperature was record high at the global scale, surpassing the previous record of 2015 by about 0.01 degrees C. The global sea surface temperature trend for the 21st century-to-date of +0.162 degrees C decade(-1) is much higher than the longer term 1950-2016 trend of +0.100 degrees C decade(-1). Global annual mean sea level also reached a new record high, marking the sixth consecutive year of increase. Global annual ocean heat content saw a slight drop compared to the record high in 2015. Alpine glacier retreat continued around the globe, and preliminary data indicate that 2016 is the 37th consecutive year of negative annual mass balance. Across the Northern Hemisphere, snow cover for each month from February to June was among its four least extensive in the 47-year satellite record. Continuing a pattern below the surface, record high temperatures at 20-m depth were measured at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska and at the Canadian observatory on northernmost Ellesmere Island. In the Antarctic, record low monthly surface pressures were broken at many stations, with the southern annular mode setting record high index values in March and June. Monthly high surface pressure records for August and November were set at several stations. During this period, record low daily and monthly sea ice extents were observed, with the November mean sea ice extent more than 5 standard deviations below the 1981-2010 average. These record low sea ice values contrast sharply with the record high values observed during 2012-14. Over the region, springtime Antarctic stratospheric ozone depletion was less severe relative to the 1991-2006 average, but ozone levels were still low compared to pre-1990 levels. Closer to the equator, 93 named tropical storms were observed during 2016, above the 1981-2010 average of 82, but fewer than the 101 storms recorded in 2015. Three basins-the North Atlantic, and eastern and western North Pacific-experienced above-normal activity in 2016. The Australian basin recorded its least active season since the beginning of the satellite era in 1970. Overall, four tropical cyclones reached the Saffir-Simpson category 5 intensity level. The strong El Nino at the beginning of the year that transitioned to a weak La Nina contributed to enhanced precipitation variability around the world. Wet conditions were observed throughout the year across southern South America, causing repeated heavy flooding in Argentina, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Wetter-than-usual conditions were also observed for eastern Europe and central Asia, alleviating the drought conditions of 2014 and 2015 in southern Russia. In the United States, California had its first wetter-than-average year since 2012, after being plagued by drought for several years. Even so, the area covered by drought in 2016 at the global scale was among the largest in the post-1950 record. For each month, at least 12% of land surfaces experienced severe drought conditions or worse, the longest such stretch in the record. In northeastern Brazil, drought conditions were observed for the fifth consecutive year, making this the longest drought on record in the region. Dry conditions were also observed in western Bolivia and Peru; it was Bolivia's worst drought in the past 25 years. In May, with abnormally warm and dry conditions already prevailing over western Canada for about a year, the human-induced Fort McMurray wildfire burned nearly 590000 hectares and became the costliest disaster in Canadian history, with $3 billion (U.S. dollars) in insured losses.

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Arndt D. S., Blunden J., Dunn R. J. H., Aaron-Morrison Arlene P., Abdallah A., Ackerman Steven A., Adler Robert, Alfaro Eric J., Allan Richard P., Allan Rob, Alvarez Luis A., Alves Lincoln M., Amador Jorge A., Andreassen L. M., Arce Dayana, Argueez Anthony, Arndt Derek S., Arzhanova N. M., Augustine John, Awatif E. M., Azorin-Molina Cesar, Baez Julian, Bardin M. U., Barichivich Jonathan, Baringer Molly O., Barreira Sandra, Baxter Stephen, Beck H. E., Becker Andreas, Bedka Kristopher M., Behrenfeld Michael J., Bell Gerald D., Belmont M., Benedetti Angela, Bernhard G. H., Berrisford Paul, Berry David I., Bettolli Maria L., Bhatt U. S., Bidegain Mario, Biskaborn B., Bissolli Peter, Bjerke J., Blake Eric S., Blunden Jessica, Bosilovich Michael G., Boucher Olivier, Boudet Dagne, Box J. 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