A new approach to using Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT) labile concentration for Water Framework Directive chemical status assessment: adaptation of Environmental Quality Standard to DGT for cadmium, nickel and lead

Type Article
Date 2023-04
Language English
Author(s) Amouroux IsabelleORCID1, Gonzalez Jean-LouisORCID2, Guesdon StephaneORCID3, Belzunce-Segarra María Jesús4, Bersuder Philippe5, Bolam Thi5, Caetano Miguel6, Correia Dos Santos Margarida7, Larreta Joana4, Lebrun LucORCID8, Marras Barbara9, Millán Gabet Vanessa10, McHugh Brendan11, Menchaca Iratxe4, Menet-Nedelec FlorenceORCID12, Montero Natalia4, Perceval Olivier13, Pierre Duplessix Olivier14, Regan Fiona15, Rodríguez Jose Germán4, Rodrigo Sanz Marta10, Schintu Marco9, White Blánaid15, Zhang Hao16
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, Chemical Contamination of Marine Ecosystems Unit, Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, 44300, Nantes, France
2 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, Environmental Resources Laboratory (Provence-Azur-Corse), Zone Portuaire de Brégaillon, 83507, La Seyne/mer, France
3 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, Environmental Resources Laboratory (Pertuis Charentais), Avenue de Mus de Loup, 17390, La Tremblade, France
4 : AZTI, Marine Research Division, Herrera Kaia Portualdea z/g, 20110, Pasaia, Spain
5 : CEFAS, Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft Laboratory, Pakefield Road, Suffolk, Lowestoft, NR33 0HT, UK
6 : IPMA, Portuguese Institute of Sea and Atmosphere, Rua Alfredo Magalhães Ramalho, 6, 1495-165, Algés, Portugal
7 : Departamento de Engenharia Química, Centro de Química Estrutural, Institute of Molecular Sciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal
8 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, Environmental Resources Laboratory (Bretagne Occidentale), Place de La Croix, 29185, Concarneau, France
9 : UNICA, Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche e Sanità Pubblica, Università degli studi di Cagliari, 09124, Cagliari, Italy
10 : ITC, Instituto Tecnológico de Canarias, Playa de Pozo Izquierdo, S/N. CP: 35119, Sta. Lucía, Las Palmas, Spain
11 : Marine Institute, Rinville, Oranmore, Galway, Ireland
12 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, Environmental Resources Laboratory (Normandie), Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 14520, Port-en-Bessin, France
13 : Office Français de la Biodiversité, 5 Square Félix Nadar, 94300, Vincennes, France
14 : Ifremer, LITTORAL, Environmental Resources Laboratory (Pays de Loire), Rue de l’Ile d’Yeu, 44300, Nantes, France
15 : DCU Water Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland
16 : Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK
Source Environmental Sciences Europe (2190-4707) (Springer Science and Business Media LLC), 2023-04 , Vol. 35 , N. 1 , P. 29 (12p.)
DOI 10.1186/s12302-023-00733-4
WOS© Times Cited 1
Keyword(s) Water Framework Directive (WFD), DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films), EQS(marine water), Chemical status assessment, Metal dissolved concentration, Metal labile concentration, Bioavailability, Cadmium, Nickel, Lead

Integrative passive samplers, such as DGT (Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films), are identified in European Technical Guidance Documents as promising tools to improve the quality of the assessment, in the context of the WFD (EU Water Framework Directive). However, DGT results cannot yet be used directly in a regulatory framework to assess the chemical status of water bodies, as DGT labile concentrations cannot be directly compared to the metal AA-EQSmarine water (Annual Average Environmental Quality Standard) established by the WFD, which are defined in the dissolved concentration. Therefore, prior to using DGT results in a regulatory context, for cadmium, nickel and lead, an adaptation of existing AA-EQSmarine water for DGTs should be pursued, ensuring at least the same level of protection. In this sense, in the framework of the MONITOOL project, a robust database of dissolved and labile metal concentrations in transitional and coastal waters, for adapting the existing AA-EQSmarine water for DGT technique, was obtained. Building on these results, this study proposes a methodology and provides values and equations for using DGT results for the chemical status assessment of marine waters, by adapting the EQSmarine water to adapted EQSDGT or predicting dissolved concentrations from DGT results. Based on available dataset, a first simulation of “chemical status” assessment per MONITOOL sampling site using DGT measured labile concentrations was carried out and the results were compared to an assessment based on dissolved concentration to check their compliance. These results demonstrate that the use of DGT passive samplers is appropriate for the metal concentrations level encountered in the marine environment. Further work is recommended to test the effectiveness of the methodology proposed in this study under WFD conditions on more sites and to establish common strategy guidelines for the use of DGT passive samplers in monitoring.

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Annex 1: MONITOOL sampling sites. Annex 2: Statistical process and results. Annex 3: Statistical process results. Annex 4: Results of the three statistical methods used as a first approach in the... 1 MB Open access
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Amouroux Isabelle, Gonzalez Jean-Louis, Guesdon Stephane, Belzunce-Segarra María Jesús, Bersuder Philippe, Bolam Thi, Caetano Miguel, Correia Dos Santos Margarida, Larreta Joana, Lebrun Luc, Marras Barbara, Millán Gabet Vanessa, McHugh Brendan, Menchaca Iratxe, Menet-Nedelec Florence, Montero Natalia, Perceval Olivier, Pierre Duplessix Olivier, Regan Fiona, Rodríguez Jose Germán, Rodrigo Sanz Marta, Schintu Marco, White Blánaid, Zhang Hao (2023). A new approach to using Diffusive Gradient in Thin-films (DGT) labile concentration for Water Framework Directive chemical status assessment: adaptation of Environmental Quality Standard to DGT for cadmium, nickel and lead. Environmental Sciences Europe, 35(1), 29 (12p.). Publisher's official version : https://doi.org/10.1186/s12302-023-00733-4 , Open Access version : https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00835/94689/