Passive Samplers, a Powerful Tool to Detect Viruses and Bacteria in Marine Coastal Areas

Type Article
Date 2021-02
Language English
Author(s) Vincent Hubert Francoise1, Wacrenier Candice1, Morga BenjaminORCID2, Lozach Solen1, Quenot Emmanuelle1, Mege Mickael2, Lecadet Cyrielle2, Gourmelon MicheleORCID1, Hervio-Heath DominiqueORCID1, Le Guyader Soizick1
Affiliation(s) 1 : Ifremer, Laboratoire de Microbiologie, LSEM/SG2M, Nantes, France
2 : Ifremer, Laboratoire de Génétique et Pathologie des Mollusques, LGPMM/SG2M, La Tremblade, France
Source Frontiers In Microbiology (1664-302X) (Frontiers Media SA), 2021-02 , Vol. 12 , P. 631174 (12p.)
DOI 10.3389/fmicb.2021.631174
WOS© Times Cited 10
Keyword(s) norovirus, Ostreid herpes virus 1 &#956, var, Vibrio spp, microbial source tracking, sea, passive sampler, oyster (Crassostrea gigas)

The detection of viruses and bacteria which can pose a threat either to shellfish health or shellfish consumers remains difficult. The current detection methods rely on point sampling of water, a method that gives a snapshot of the microorganisms present at the time of sampling. In order to obtain better representativeness of the presence of these microorganisms over time, we have developed passive sampling using the adsorption capacities of polymer membranes. Our objectives here were to assess the feasibility of this methodology for field detection. Different types of membrane were deployed in coastal waters over 2 years and the microorganisms tested using qPCR were: human norovirus (NoV) genogroups (G)I and II, sapovirus, Vibrio spp. and the species Vibrio alginolyticus, V. cholerae, V. vulnificus, and V. parahaemolyticus, OsHV-1 virus, and bacterial markers of fecal contamination. NoV GII, Vibrio spp., and the AllBac general Bacteroidales marker were quantified on the three types of membrane. NoV GII and OsHV-1 viruses followed a seasonal distribution. All membranes were favorable for NoV GII detection, while Zetapor was more adapted for OsHV-1 detection. Nylon was more adapted for detection of Vibrio spp. and the AllBac marker. The quantities of NoV GII, AllBac, and Vibrio spp. recovered on membranes increased with the duration of exposure. This first application of passive sampling in seawater is particularly promising in terms of an early warning system for the prevention of contamination in oyster farming areas and to improve our knowledge on the timing and frequency of disease occurence.

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Publisher's official version 12 847 KB Open access
Table 1 12 KB Open access
Table 2 12 KB Open access
Data Sheet 1. Device used for passive sampling. Zetapor (left), nylon and LDPE (right) membranes. 502 KB Open access
Data Sheet 2. Technological approach used for detection of virus and bacteria with passive sampling. 17 KB Open access
Data Sheet 3. Mean concentrations over the year of microorganisms at the two sites in 2016–2017. 12 KB Open access
Data Sheet 4. Comparison of NoV GII concentrations on membranes in autumn-winter and spring-summer. The mean concentration of NoV GII ± SD on membrane ... 36 KB Open access
Data Sheet 5. Frequencies of NoV GII-positive membrane in 2017–2018. Frequencies are expressed as percentages. 14 KB Open access
Data Sheet 6. Recommendation for passive sampling according to microorganisms. 12 KB Open access
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Vincent Hubert Francoise, Wacrenier Candice, Morga Benjamin, Lozach Solen, Quenot Emmanuelle, Mege Mickael, Lecadet Cyrielle, Gourmelon Michele, Hervio-Heath Dominique, Le Guyader Soizick (2021). Passive Samplers, a Powerful Tool to Detect Viruses and Bacteria in Marine Coastal Areas. Frontiers In Microbiology, 12, 631174 (12p.). Publisher's official version : , Open Access version :